KUNDUZ, a khanate and town of Afghan Turkestan.
The khanate is bounded on the E.
In the course of 1551 one of the factions of Kazan offered the whole khanate to the young tsar, and on the 20th of August 1552 he stood before its walls with an army of 150,000 men and 50 guns.
Some of Ivan's advisers, including both Sylvester and Adashev, now advised him to make an end of the Crimean khanate, as he had already made an end of the khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan.
Taken by storm on New Year's day 1813 by the Russians, Lenkoran was in the same year formally surrendered by Persia to Russia by the treaty of Gulistan, along with the khanate of Talysh, of which it was the capital.
The khanate closely connected with the history of Russia was that of Kipchak or the Golden Horde, the khans of which settled, as we have seen, on the lower Volga and built for themselves a capital called Sarai.
For some time longer the Tatars remained troublesome neighbours, capable of invading and devastating large tracts of Russian territory and of threatening even the city of Moscow, but the Horde was now broken up into independent and mutually hostile khanates, and the Moscow diplomatists could generally play off one khanate against the other, so that there was no danger of the old political domination being re-established.
As these independent Tatar states were always jealous of each other, and their jealousy often broke out in open hostility, it was easy to prevent any combined action on their part; and as in each khanate there were always several pretenders and contending factions, Muscovite diplomacy had little difficulty in weakening them individually and preparing for their annexation.
GOLDEN HORDE, the name of a body of Tatars who in the middle of the 13th century overran a great portion of eastern Europe and founded in Russia the Tatar empire of khanate known as the Empire of the Golden Horde or Western Kipchaks.
Very rapidly the powers of Batu extended over the Russian princes, and so long as the khanate remained in the direct descent from Batu nothing occurred to check the growth of the empire.
The khanate of Khokand was a powerful state which grew up in the 18th century.
Several petty wars were undertaken by the Russians after 1847 to destroy the Khokand forts, and to secure possession, first, of the Ili (and so of Dzungaria), and next of the Syr-darya region, the result being that in 1866, after the occupation of Ura-tyube and Jizakh, the khanate of Khokand was separated from Bokhara.
During the forty-five years after the death of Omar (he died in 1822) the khanate of Khokand was the seat of continuous wars between the settled Sarts and the nomad Kipchaks, the two parties securing the upper hand in turns, Khokand falling under the dominion or the suzerainty of Bokhara, which supported Khudayar-khan, the representative of the Kipchak party, in 1858-1866; while Alim-kul, the representative of the Sarts, put himself at the head of the gazawat (Holy War) proclaimed in 1860, and fought bravely against the Russians until killed at Tashkent in 1865.
It ended, in February 1876, by the capture of Andijan and Khokand and the annexation of the Khokand khanate to Russia.
- The following publications are all in Russian: Kuhn, Sketch of the Khanate of Khokand (1876); V.
AKCHA, a town and khanate of Afghan Turkestan.
The khanate is small, but well watered and populous.
Meanwhile the district of Khiva, previously subject to Bokhara, was made an independent khanate by Abdul-Gazi Bahadur Khan; and in the reign of Subhankuli, who ascended the throne in 1680, the political power of Bokhara was still further lessened, though it continued to enjoy the unbounded respect of the Sunnite Mahommedans.
Shemakha was the capital of the khanate of Shirvan, and was known to the Roman geographer Ptolemy as Kamachia.
NUKHA, a town of Russian Caucasia, in the government of Elizavetpol, and previous to 1819 the capital of the khanate of Sheki, lying 57 m.
Nukha was a mere village down to the middle of the 18th century, when it was chosen by Hajji Chelyabi, the founder of the khanate of Sheki, as his residence.
In 1873 Khiva was invaded, and as much of the khanate as lay on the right bank of the Oxus was incorporated into the Russian empire, a portion being afterwards made over to Bokhara.
He next travelled into Kipchak (the Mongol khanate of Russia), and joined the camp of the reigning khan Mahommed Uzbeg, from whom the great and heterogeneous Uzbeg race is perhaps named.
Shusha was formerly the capital of the khanate of Kara-bagh.
TASHKURGHAN, or Khulm, a khanate and town of Afghan Turkestan.
The khanate lies between Kunduz and Balkh.
SHIBARGHAN, a town and khanate of Afghan Turkestan.
The khanate is one of the "four domains," which were long in dispute between Bokhara and Kabul, but were allotted to the Afghans by the Anglo-Russian boundary agreement of 1873.
MAIMANA, a town and khanate of Afghan Turkestan.
The khanate was for long in dispute between Bokhara and Kabul, but in 1868 Abdur Rahman laid siege to the town, and it was compelled to come to terms. Its political status as an Afghan province was definitely fixed by the Russo-Afghan boundary commission of 1885.
FERGHANA, or Fergana, a province of Russian Turkestan, formed in 1876 out of the former khanate of Khokand.