In 1289 Kala`un took Tripoli, and the county of Tripoli was extinguished; in 1290 he died while preparing to besiege Acre, which was captured after a brave defence by his son and successor Khalil in 1291.
This news caused consternation at Constantinople; the inevitable revolt of the Janissaries followed, headed this time by one Patrona Khalil, and the sultan was forced to abdicate in favour of his nephew Mahmud.
While, however, these measures were in early use, they were not systematically analysed or their rules enunciated until the time of Khalil ibn Ahmad in the 8th century.
Khalil ibn Ahmad (718-791), an Arab from Oman, of the school of Basra, was the first to enunciate the laws of Arabic metre and the first to write a dictionary.
North in the `Ain Khalil ar-Rahman, but receives also the waters of the united Nahr al-Kut (in its upper course formerly the Daisan, /lcipros) from Edessa and Kopru Dagh, and the Jullab from Tektek Dagh about as much farther north.
In return for his services, Kublai invested Phagspa with sovereign power over (1) Tibet proper, comprising the thirteen districts of U and Tsang, (2) Khalil and (3) Amdo.
The principal bazaar, the Khan-el-Khalil, marks the site of the tombs of the Fatimite caliphs.
East of the Khan-el-Khalil is the mosque of El Hasanen, which is invested with peculiar sanctity as containing relics of Hosain and Hasan, grandsons of the Prophet.
Kaln was followed by his son Khalil (Malik al-A shraf Sala~z al-din), who carried out his fathers policy of driving the Franks out of Syria and Palestine, and proceeded with the siege of Acre, which he took (May 18th, 1291) after a siege of fortythree days.
He was dethroned in 1296, and one of the murderers of Khalil, IJusm al-dIn Ljin, son-in-law of the sultan Bibars and formerly governor of Damascus, installed in his palace (November 26th, 1296).
The pasha was ordered either to hand over the executioners to vengeance or to resign his place; as he refused to do the forfner he was compelled to do the latter, and presently a rescript came from Constantinople, approving the conduct of the army and appointing one KhalIl Pasha as Musas successor.
He thereby excited the suspicions of the Sheik al-Balad Khalil Bey, who organized an attack upon him in the streets of Cairo, in consequence of which he fled to Upper Egypt.
Here he met one Salib Bey, who had injuries to avenge on Khalil Bey, and the two organized a force with which they returned to Cairo and defeated KhalII, who was forced to fly to Iaifla, where for a time he concealed himself; eventually, however, he was discovered, sent to Alexandria and finally strangled.
To these there should be added the Survey of Egypt, called attuhfah al-saniyyah of Ibn Jihn, belonging to the time of Kait Bey; the treatise on the Egyptian constitution called Zubdat Kashf al-Mamalik, by Khalil al-~hiri, of the same period; and the encyclopaedic work on the same subject called Subii al-Insh, by al-Qalqashandi, d.
He occupied Abu Klea wells and Metemma; recalled the amir Ibrahim Khalil, with 4000 men, from the Ghezira; brought to Omdurman thc army of the west under Mahmudsome 10,000 men; entrusted the line of the AtbaraEd Darner, Adarama, Asubri and El Fasherto Osman Digna; constructed defences in the Shabluka gorge; and personally superintended the organization and drill of the forces gathered at Orndurman, and the collection of vast stores of food and supplies of camels for offensive expeditions.
To the south of it begins the subdivision of the Judaean mountains now known as Jebel el-Khalil, from Hebron (el-Khalil), which stands in an elevated basin some 500 ft.
In 1409 Khalil Shah died; and the story goes that Shadu l-Mulk stabbed herself and was buried with her royal lover at Rai, one of the towns which his grandfather had partly destroyed.
Somewhat later Ibrahim Khalil of Shusha, repenting of his Russophilism, determined to deliver up the Muscovite garrison at that place, but his plans were betrayed, and he and his relatives put to death.
Of these the north-westerly, the lower of the two, but the larger in superficial area, is called Ibrahim Khalil, from a ziara, or shrine, of Abraham, the friend of God, which stands on its highest point.