The mandi's successor, the khalifa Abdullah, was a Baggara, and throughout his rule the tribe held the first place in his favour.
Gordon (1874 to 1879), but under the Mandi and the Khalifa the slave trade was revived.
According to the story of Hicks's cook, one of the survivors, the general was the last officer to fall, pierced by the spear of the khalifa Mahommed Sherif.
Haji Khalifa, frequently termed Katib Chelebi, was one of the most famous men of letters whom Turkey has produced.
Its growth was rapid, the Khalifa (who succeeded the Mandi) compelling large numbers of disaffected tribesmen to live in the town under the eye of his soldiery.
On the 2nd of September 1898 the Anglo-Egyptian army under Lord Kitchener totally defeated the forces of the Khalifa at Kerreri, 7 m.
To 1 First described by the Turk, Haj j i Khalifa, in the 37th century; first seen by the Swedish traveller Otter in 1736, and first published in 1840 in Ritter's Erdkunde, iii., after a drawing by Major Fischer, made in 1837.
To these names must be added Maqqari (Makkari) (q.v.) and Hajji Khalifa (q.v.) (d.
The History of the Maritime Wars of the Turks, by Hajji Khalifa (translated by J.
Khalifa; the lengthening of the a is strictly incorrect), literally "successor," "representative," a title borne originally by Abu Bekr, who, on the death of Mahomet, became the civil and religious head of the Mahommedan state.
After the fall of the khalifa trade revived, the imports in 1899 being valued at L180,000, as against r70,000 in 1880.
The Baggara of Kordofan from that time onward were the chief supporters of the mandi, and his successor, the khalifa Abdullah, was a Baggara.
This was observed by British officers, from the time of the preliminary operations about Kosha and at the action near Ginnis in December 1885 down to the brilliant operations in the pursuit of the Mahdists on the Blue Nile after the action of Gedaref (subsequent to the battle of Omdurman), and the fighting in Kordofan in 1899, which resulted in the death of the khalifa and his amirs.
Prior to the death of the khalifa, many of his soldiers deserted to join their brethren who had been captured by the sirdars troops, during the gradual advance up the Nile.
On the 2nd of September the khalifa attacked the British-Egyptian troops at Kerreri (near Omdurman), and being routed, his men dispersed; Khartum was occupied, and on the i9th of September the Egyptian flag was rehoisted at Fashoda.
The khalifa himself was killed; while the victor, who had joined the Egyptian army in 1883 as aide-de-camp to the first sirdar, in December I 899 became the fourth sirdar, as Major-General Sir F.
As the British troops retired to Upper Egypt, his followers seized the evacuated country, and the khalifa cherished the idea, already formulated by the mahdi, of the conquest of Egypt, but for some years he was too much occupied in quelling risings, massacring Lne Egyptians in the Sudan, and fighting Abyssinia, to move seriously in the matter.
The troubles in Darfur and with Abyssinia (q.v.) induced the khalifa to reduce the garrisons of the north; nevertheless, the dervishes reoccupied Sarras, continued active in raids and skirmishes, and destroyed the railway south of Sarras, which during the Nile expedition of 1884 and 1885 had been carried as far as Ak~1ha.
At this time the power and prestige of the khalifa were at their height: the rebellions in Darfur and Kordofan had been stamped out, the anti-mahdi was dead, and even the dervish defeat by the Abyssinians had been converted by the death of King John and the capture of his body into a success.
The khalifa sent the amir Hamdan Abu Angar, a very skilful leader, with an army of over 80,000 men against him.
After the death of the mahdi in 1885, Madibbo revolted against the khalifa, but was defeated by Kararnalla, the dervish amir of the Bahr-el-Ghazal, and was caught and executed.
The Darfurian chiefs then allied themselves with Abu Gemaiza, sheikh of the Masalit Arabs, who had proclaimed himself Khalifa Osman, and was known as the anti-mahdi.
The revolt assumed large proportions, and became the more dangerous to Abdullah, the khalifa, by reason of its religious character, wild rumours spreading over the country and reaching to Egypt and Suakin of the advent to power of an opposition mahdi.
In 1890 the Shilluks in the neighborhood of Fashoda rose against the khalifa, and the dervish amir of Gallabat, Zeki Tumal, was engaged for two years in suppressing the rebellion.
He got the upper hand in 1892, and was recalled to oppose an Italian force said tobe advancing from Massawa; but on reporting that it was impossible to invade Eritrea, as the khalifa wished him to do, he was summoned to Omdurman and put to death.
In the following year the Congo expedition established further posts, and in consequence the khalifa sent 3000 men, under the amir Khatem Musa, from Shakka to reoccupy the Bahr-el-Ghazal.
In the meantime the arrival of Stanley at Lake Albert had caused rumours, which quickly spread to Omdurman, of a great invading white pasha, with the result that in July the khalifa sent up the river three steamers and six barges, containing 4000 troops, to oppose this new-comer.
In the meantime the khalifa was not idle.
Towards the end of June the chief of the Jaalin tribe, Abdalla wad Said, who occupied Metemma, angered by the khalifa, made his submission to Kitchener and asked for support, at the same time foolishly sending a defiant letter to the khalifa.
The sirdar sent him rifles and ammunition across the desert from Korti; but before they arrived, Mahmuds army, sent by the khalifa, swept down on Metemma on the 1st of July and massacred Abdalla wad Said and his garrison.
The khalifa, fearing an attack on Olndurman, moved Osman Digna from Adarama to Shendi.
The forces of the khalifa remaining quiet, the sirdar visited Kassala and negotiated with the Italian General Caneva for its restoration to Egypt.
On his return from Kassala to Berber the sirdar received information of an intended advance of the khalifa northward.
The khalifa was now in full retreat, and the sirdar, sending his cavalry in pursuit, marched into Omdurman.
The European prisoners of the khalifa found in OmdurmanCharles Neufeld, Joseph Ragnotti, Sister Teresa Grigolini, and some 30 Greekswere released; and on Sunday the 4th of September the sirdar, with representatives from every regiment, crossed the r~iver to Khartum, where the British and Egyptian flags were hoisted, and a short service held in memory of General Gordon, near the place where he met his death.
Two thousand five hundred fighting men surrendered later, and the rest escaped with Ahmed Fedil to join the khalifa in Kordofan.
No further ~attempt was made to interfere with the khalifa in his far-off retreat until towards the end of the year, ~vhen, good order having been generally established throughout the rest of the Sudan, it was decided to extend it to Kordof an.
On arriving at Fongor it was ascertained that the khalifa had gone north, and the cavalry and camel corps having reconnoitred Jebel Gedir, the expedition returned.
Gedid was reached on the 23rd, and the khalifa was ascertained to be at Om Debreikat.
Thus ended the power of the khalifa and of Mahdism.
Nearly every building in Khartum was destroyed by the Mandists and the city abandoned in favour of Omdurman, which place remained the headquarters of the mandi's successor, the khalifa Abdullah, till September 1898, when it was taken by the Anglo-Egyptian forces under General (afterwards Lord) Kitchener, and the seat of government again transferred to Khartum.
Since the defeat of the khalifa at Omdurman and the fixing (1899) of the Egyptian frontier farther south, the military value of Assuan has declined.