Its concluding words suggest that its production was due to Khalid ben Yezid (died in 708), who was a pupil of the Syrian monk Marianus, and according to the Kitab-al-Fihrist was the first Mussulman writer on alchemy.
The Liber de compositione alchemiae, which professes to be by Morienus - perhaps the same as the Marianus who was the teacher of Khalid - was translated by Robertus Castrensis, who states that he finished the work in 1182, and speaks as if he were making a revelation - " Quid sit alchemia nondum cognovit vestra Latinitas."
The successful reduction of the rebels in Arabia enabled him in his first year to send his great general Khalid with his Arab warriors first against Persians, then against Romans.
Here he waited two months for reinforcements, and with his Bedouin contingent, strengthened by the adhesion of the Ateba and Bani Khalid tribes, advanced on Shakra in Wushm, which fell in January 1818 after a regular siege.
His son, Fesal, succeeded him, but in 1836 on his refusal to pay tribute an Egyptian force was sent to depose him and he was taken prisoner and sent to Cairo, while a rival claimant, Khalid, was established as amir in Riad.
Reinforced by Khalid b.
When Omar became caliph he made Khalid chief commander of the Syrian armies, `Amr remaining in Palestine to complete the submission of that province.
It is not certain that `Amr assisted Khalid in the siege of Damascus, but very probable that he took part in the decisive battle of Yarmuk, 10th of August 636.
He encountered formidable opposition from different quarters, but in every case he was successful, the severest struggle being that with the impostor Mosailima, who was finally defeated by Khalid at the battle of Akraba.
The Irak of Persia was overcome by Khalid in a single campaign, and there was also a successful expedition into Syria.
According to tradition, his wife was taken for a time into the harem of Abdallah, brother of Kotaiba the conqueror of Balkh, and became the mother of Khalid b.
Khalid was the vizier of the caliph Mandi and tutor of Harlan al-Rashid.
Six children survived him: Prince Yussuf Izz-ed-din, born 1857; Princess Saliha, wife of Kurd Ismail Pasha; Princess Nazime, wife of Khalid Pasha; Prince Abd-ul-Mejid, born 1869; Prince Seif-ed-din, born 1876; Princess Emine, wife of Mahommed Bey; Prince Shefket, born 1872, died 1899.
Khalid, 117118 (735).
After the subjugation of middle and north-eastern Arabia, Khalid b.
Such were beyond all doubt the patricians of Mecca, and after them those of Taif, people like Khalid b.
Moawiya has been accused of having poisoned more than one of his adversaries, among them Malik Ashtar, Abdarrahman the son of the great captain Khalid b.
This relative was Khalid, the son of Abdarrahman, is absurd inasmuch as Moawiya made this Khalid commander against the Greeks in succession to his father.
Khalid, the brother of Moawiya II., was still a youth and appears to have had no strength of character.
Ziyad, conceived that only a man of distinction could win the contest, and proclaimed Merwan caliph, on condition that his successor should be Khalid b.
- Merwan strengthened his position according to the old oriental fashion by marrying the widow of Yazid, and soon felt himself strong enough to substitute his own son Abdalmalik for Khalid b.
Khalid contented himself with protesting; he was neither a politician nor a soldier, but a student of alchemy and astronomy; translations of Greek books have been ascribed to him (Jahiz, Bayan, i.
- Merwan died on the 27th of Ramadan 65 (7th May 685); according to tradition, he was suffocated by his wife, because he had insulted her son Khalid and herself.
He succeeded in reconciling the sons of `Amr Ashdaq, and also Khalid b.
Hayyan at Medina and Khalid al-Qasri at Mecca.
Hobaira and appointing in his place Khalid al-Qasri.
Khalid himself assuredly did not intend it.
For fifteen years Khalid governed the eastern half of the empire, and continued to maintain peace with only few exceptions throughout.
Khalid lived on a very rich scale and was extraordinarily liberal, and he was charged with having carried out all his improvements for his own interests, and upbraided for selling the corn of his estates only when the prices were high.
At last a conspiracy, into which the principal engineer of Khalid, Hassan the Nabataean, had been drawn, succeeded in inciting Hisham against Khalid.
They told him that Khalid had used disrespectful terms in speaking of the caliph, and that he had appropriated revenues belonging to the state.
When the dismissal of Khalid had been resolved upon, Yusuf b.
Omar, his appointed successor, was sent secretly to Kuf a, where he seized on Khalid unawares.
For eighteen months Khalid remained in prison.
Though it soon appeared that the imputation was false, Khalid, on his return, was furious, and uttered very offensive words against the caliph.
The successor of Khalid in Irak had not long been in office when Zaid b.
736) the governor Asad alQasri, the brother of Khalid, after having defeated Ilarith, gained a brilliant victory over the Turks, which finally caused them to retreat.
It is not certain that Walid also suspected Khalid al-Qasri of having intrigued against him.
Walid I., and joined by the majority of the Merwanid princes and many Kalbites and other Yemenites who regarded the ill-treatment of Khalid al-Qasri as an insult to themselves.
Hisham, Yazid, the son of Khalid al-Qasri, and other chiefs, hastened to the Khadra and killed the two princes, together with Yusuf b.
Khalid al Qasri.
One of the false witnesses was, it is asserted, Khalid b.
This Khalid, who was descended from an old sacerdotal family in Balkh, and had been one of the trusty supporters of Abu Moslim, Mansur appointed as minister of finance.
Khalid already had so many friends that the sum was brought together with the exception of 30,000 dirhems. At that moment tidings came about a rising in the province of Mosul, and a friend of Khalid said to the caliph that Khalid was the only man capable of putting it down.
Thereupon Mansur overlooked the deficiency and gave Khalid the government of Mosul.
"And," said a citizen of that town, "we had such an awe and reverence for Khalid, that he appeased the disorders, almost without punishing anybody."
Khalid, sent the insignia of the Caliphate, with letters of condolence and congratulation, to Musa in Jorjan, and brought the army which had accompanied Mandi peacefully back from Media to Bagdad.
Khalid, Harun's former tutor, who showed such firmness and boldness that Hadi cast him into prison and resolved on his death.
Khalid, and to confide important posts to the two sons of Yahya, Faell and Ja`far, of whom the former was his own foster-brother, the latter his intimate friend.
Khalid, to whose care he had been entrusted, suffered him to escape, and that this was the real cause of Harun's anger against the Barmecides (q.v.).
About 630 it was captured by the Moslem leader, Khalid ibn Walid, who is buried there.
In 635 Damascus was captured for Islam by Khalid ibn Walid, the great general of the new religion, being the first city to yield after the battle of the Yarmuk (Hieromax).
Lebanon, under Khalid ibn Walid in the 9th century, as the beginning of Druse distinctiveness and power; but it also accepts Turkoman and Kurdish elements in the original Druse state.