1200, however, the Arabian geographers mention a tributary, the Tharthar, navigable in flood time, which flowed from the Jaghigagh branch of the Khabur, a tributary of the Euphrates, to the Tigris.
On the eastern side of the river, on the other hand, there are several important tributaries descending from the Persian mountains: the Khabur, a little north of 37° N., navigable for rafts; the Great Zab, at 36° N., just below Nimrud, the ancient Calah; the Little Zab, about 35° 15' N.; the 'Adhem at 34° N.
Anciently the country on both sides of the Euphrates was habitable as far as the river Khabur; at the present time it is all desert from Birejik downward, the camping ground of Bedouin Arabs, the great tribe of Anazeh occupying esh-Sham, the right bank, and the Shammar the left bank, Mesopotamia of the Romans, now called elJezireh or the island.
Here the roads from Damascus, by way of Palmyra, and from Mosul, by way of the Khabur, reach the Euphrates, and here there must always have been a town of considerable commercial and strategic importance.
A little below Deir the river is joined by the Khabur (Khaboras, Biblical Khabor), the frontier of the Roman empire from Diocletian's time, which rises in the Karaja Dagh, and, with its tributary, the Jaghijagh (Mygdonius; Arab.
Hirmas) flows south through the land of Gozan in which Sargon settled the deported Israelites in 721 B.C. At the mouth of the Khabur stood the Roman frontier fortress of Circesium (Assyrian, Sirki; Arab.
As far as the Khabur Mesopotamia seems to have been a wellinhabited country from at least the 15th century B.C., when it constituted the Hittite kingdom of Mitanni, down to about the 12th century A.D., and the same is true of the country on the Syrian side of the Euphrates as far as the eastern limit of the Palmyrene.
In view of historical and geographical facts there is much to be said for applying the name Mesopotamia to the country drained by the Khabur, the Belikh, and the part of the Euphrates connected therewith.
All this drainage, collected into two rivers, the Belikh and the Khabur, is towards the left bank of the Euphrates, for the Mesopotamian watershed seems to be only some 15 m.
The Khabur (Chabur, Chaboras 8), 80-10o ft.
From Nasibin in the north-east, bringing with it the waters of the many streams from the Tar `Abdin highlands; the north 'Awij, which at certain seasons brings much water due south from Mardin, and the main stream of the Khabur, which has come 60 m.
The Arabian geographers represent the Tharthar as connected at its upper end (by a canal?) with the Khabur system.
(2) The rolling plains north of the `Abd al `Aziz Sinjar mountain wall are intersected by the many streams of the Khabur system (the Arab geographer Mustaufi speaks of 300 feeders), which under favourable political and administrative conditions would produce a marked fertility.
At Saruj, the Khabur), millet, sesemum (for oil, instead of olive), dura (Holcus sorghum and H.
Nasibina, Nisibis), on confluents of the Khabur; Sinjar (Singara) on the Tharthar.
6; in the Khabur district), Bit Adini (Osroene), Kummukh (north-west corner and beyond); in the Roman period, Osroene, Mygdonia (in the east), and in Syriac usage Beth `Arbaye (between Nisibis and Mosul); in the Arab period, Diarbekr (T ar `Abdin), Diar Rebi'a (Mygdonia), Diar Muelar (Osroene).
About other cross-roads, such as those from Harr - an to Tell Shaddada on the lower Khabur, or from 'Ana by al-Haelr to Mosul it is difficult to say.
Only two have been touched: `Arban on the Khabur, where remains of a palace of uncertain date, among other things an XVIII.
Established more direct relations between Mesopotamia and Babylon, his work was presently undone by the vigorous campaigns of Tiglath-pileser I., who seems to have even won Egypt's sanction of his succession to the Hittite claims. The newly recovered (1909) tablet of Tukulti-Ninib, the grandfather of Shalmaneser II., is interesting from its account of an expedition down the course of the Tharthar to Hit = Id (river and town now first mentioned in cuneiform sources) and up the Euphrates to the Khabur district.
Then, when Vologaeses, yielding to his growing discontent, took advantage of the death of Antoninus to invade Armenia the Romans were victorious (164), and after the storming of places such as Nicephorium, Edessa, Nisibis, western Mesopotamia was once more Roman as far as the Khabur, Carrhae becoming a free city and Osroene a dependency.
In 242 Mesopotamia was entered by a great Roman army which recovered Carrhae and Nisibis, and defeated the Persians at Rhesaena; but when Gordian, after a difficult march down the Khabur, was murdered at Zaitha below Circesium, Philip the Arabian (244) made the best terms he could with Shapur I.
He kept to the far north of Mesopotamia to avoid his brother Ferhan; but finally half-sedentary tribes on the Khabur and the Belikh became tributary to him, and a more or less active warfare sprang up between the brothers, which ended in a partition of Mesopotamia.
His authority was before his death recognized all over Syria (with the exception of the few cities still in the power of the Franks), over Arabia, with the exception of Yemen, on the Euphrates from Birah to Kerkesia (Circesium) on the Chaboras (Khabur), whilst the amirs of north-western Africa were tributary to him.