This consists of passing a sail, attached to cords, and charged with oakum, wool, and other materials, under the vessel's keel, in such a manner that the suction of the leak may draw the canvas into the aperture, and thus partially stop the vent.
The keel, or carina sterni, is formed as a direct cartilaginous outgrowth of the body of the sternum, ossifying from a special centre.
This keel is much reduced in the New.
It is absent in the Ratitae, which from this feature have received their name, but considerable traces of a cartilaginous keel occur in the embryo of the ostrich, showing undeniably that the absence of a keel in the recent bird is not a primitive, fundamental feature.
The keel has been lost, and is being lost, at various epochs and by various groups of birds.
Often it reaches the keel of the sternum, with subsequent syndesmosis or even synostosis, e.g.
This arises mostly from the angle formed by the keel with the body of the sternum, passes by a strong tendon through the foramen triosseum, and is inserted upon the upper tubercle of the humeral crest, which it rotates and abducts.
The keel is pushed back to the distal third of the sternum, whilst the original anterior margin of the keel is correspondingly elongated,and the furcula fused with the rostral portion.
Configuration of the palate, precoracoid, pelvis, intestinal convolutions, copulatory organ, &c. Loss of the keel is co-ordinated with the power of using the forelimbs for locomotion; although a " Ratite " character, it is not sufficient to turn a Notornis, Cnemiornis or Stringops, not even a Phororhacos into a member of the Ratitae.
Sweden, and the northern mountains of Finland a continuation of Kjolen (the Keel) which separate Sweden from Norway, while the other great line of upheaval of the old continent, which runs N.W.
In the following year .another set of hints - of a kind so different that probably no one then living would have thought it possible that they should ever be brought in correlation with those of Nitzsch - are contained in a memoir on Fishes contributed to the tenth volume of the Annales du Museum d'histoire naturelle of Paris by Etienne Geoffroy St-Hilaire in 1807.1 Here we have it stated as a general truth (p. too) that young birds have the ' sternum formed of five separate pieces - one in the middle, being its keel, and two " annexes " on each side to which the ribs are .articulated - all, however, finally uniting to form the single " breast-bone."
The most novel feature, and one the importance of which most ornithologists of the present day are fully prepared to admit, is the separation of the class A y es into two great divisions, which from one of the most obvious distinctions they present were called by its author Carinatae' and Ratitae, 2 according as the sternum possesses a keel (crista in the phraseology of many anatomists) or not.
But it was now made to appear that the struthious birds in this respect resembled, not only the duck, but a great many other groups - waders, birds-of-prey, pigeons, passerines and perhaps all birds not gallinaceous - so that, according to Cuvier's view, the five points of ossification observed in the Gallinae, instead of exhibiting the normal process, exhibited one quite exceptional, and that in all other birds, so far as he had been enabled to investigate the matter, ossification of the sternum began at two points only, situated near the anterior upper margin of the side of the sternum, and gradually crept towards the keel, into which it presently extended; and, though he allowed the appearance of detached portions of calcareous matter at the base of the still cartilaginous keel in ducks at a certain age, he seemed to consider this an individual peculiarity.
The fowl possesses all five ossifications at birth, and for a long while the middle piece forming the keel is by far the largest.
The sternum has no keel, and ossifies from lateral and paired centres only; the axes of the scapula and cora.coid have the same general direction; certain of the cranial bones have characters very unlike those possessed by the next order - the vomer, for example, being broad posteriorly and generally intervening between the basisphenoidal rostrum and the palatals and pterygoids; the barbs of the feathers are disconnected; there is no syrinx or inferior larynx; and the diaphragm is better developed than in other birds.'
A diagnosis covering all the Ratitae (struthio, rhea, casuarius, dromaeus, apteryx and the allied fossils dinornis and aepyornis) would be as follows - (i) terrestrial birds without keel to the sternum, absolutely flightless; (ii) quadrate bone with a single proximal articulating knob; (iii) coracoid and scapula fused together and forming an open angle; (iv) normally without a pygostyle; (v) with an incisura ischiadica; (vi) rhamphotheca compound; (vii) without apteria or bare spaces in the plumage; (viii) with a complete copulatory organ, moved by skeletal muscles.
The separation of the Ratitae from the other birds, and their seemingly fundamental differences, notably the absence of the keel and of the power of flight, induced certain authors to go so far as to derive the Ratitae from the Dinosaurian reptiles, whilst Archaeopteryx (q.v.) and the Carinatae were supposed to have sprung from some Pterosaurian or similar reptilian stock.
- lv.) found vestiges of a keel in a young rhea, and apteria in the embryonic ostrich, and she concluded that they were descendants of birds which originally possessed the power of flight.
Although loss of flight (correlated with more or less reduction of the wings and the sternal keel, and often compensated by stronger hind limbs) has occurred, and is still taking place in various groups of birds, it is quite impossible that a new Ratite can still come into existence, because the necessary primitive substratum, whence arose the true Ratitae, is no longer available.
In the cliffs of Minaun, near the village of Keel on the south.
In breadth, and have a blunt keel and flat edges.
The scales are sometimes rounded behind, but generally rhombic in shape and more or less elongate; they may be quite smooth or provided with a longitudinal ridge or keel in the middle line.
Some of the usual characters employed for systematic purposes, for the making of convenient keys, are the following: The number of rows of scales across the body and in a longitudinal direction; shape and structure of scales, whether smooth or with a longitudinal keel; arrangement of the shields on the head; shape of the contracted pupil.
In conformity with these reductions the breastbone of the moas is devoid of any coracoidal facets; there is no trace of a keel, and the number of sternal ribs is reduced to three or even two pairs.
In Broom there is an explosive machanism; the pressure of the insect visitor on the keel of the corolla causes a sudden release of the stamens and the scattering of a cloud of pollen over its body.
Two days after this they sighted land to the right hand, and came to a cape, where they found the keel of a ship - perhaps a relic of some earlier, possibly Scandinavian explorer - and which they called therefore Kialames (Keelness; Cape Breton, or some adjacent point?); the long bleak sandy shores of this coast they called the Wonderstrands (on the east coast of Cape Breton Island?).
Keel, Belmullet and Ballycastle are the headquarters of sea and coast fishing districts, and Ballina of a salmon-fishing district, and these fisheries are of some value to the poor inhabitants.
When Vancouver visited the islands in 1792, he left sheep and neat cattle, 3 protected by a ten years' taboo, and laid down the keel of a European ship for Kamehameha.
Society, 18 74, p. 594) to be "lost," whereas the clavicles, which in most birds unite to form that bone, are present, though they do not meet, while in like manner the bird has been declared (op. cit., 1867, p. 624, note) to furnish among the Carinatae " the only apparent exception to the presence of a keel" to the sternum.
The keel, however, is undoubtedly there, as remarked by Blanchard (Ann.
That when the compass is placed in the binnacle the line joining the pivot and the lubber's point be parallel to the keel of the vessel.
Previously to 793 there lay between Jutland and England a sea which no keel had traversed within the memory of man.
The large canoes in which they formerly made long voyages are no longer built, but various kinds of smaller canoes are made, from the commonest, which is simply a hollowed-out tree cut into form, to the finely shaped one built upon a keel, the joints of the various pieces being nicely fitted, and the whole stitched together with cord made from the husk of coconuts.
Long, with a strong crista lateralis, which indicates a strongly developed great pectoral muscle and hence, by inference, the presence of a keel to the sternum.
Its leaves are five or six in number, are about a foot in length and an inch in breadth, and have a blunt keel and flat edges.
It is characterized by the presence of a special development of the lophioderm or median fin-system, namely, the ventral fin, which is composed of two portions, a lower keel-like portion, which underlies an upper chambered portion, each chamber containing typically a pair of gelatinous fin rays.
The keel of the ventral fin is continued past the anus into the expanded caudal fin, and so it happens that the anal opening is displaced from the middle line to the left side of the fin.
At the head-waters of the Tornea, Finland penetrates as a narrow strip into the heart of the highlands of Kjolen (the Keel), where the Haldefjall (Lappish, Halditjokko) reaches 4115 ft.
The backbone of the Scandinavian peninsula is a range, or series of masses, of mountains (in Swedish Kolen, 1 the keel) extending through nearly the whole length of the peninsula towards the western side.
The mountains of the Keel are not so high as wholly to destroy this effect over Sweden, and the maritime influence of the Baltic system has also to be considered.
The same effect is well shown by the linguiform isotherms. In January, for example, the isotherm of 14°, after skirting the north coast of the Scandinavian peninsula, turns southward along the Keel, crossing the upper part of the district of the great northern lakes.
The genus Struthio forms the type of the group of Ratite birds, characterized chiefly by large size, breast-bone without a keel, strong running legs, rudimentary wings and simple feathers (see Bird).
The latter is a thin flat scale bearing a median ridge or keel (e.g.