Their influence upon the young tsar was profoundly beneficial, and the period of their administration coincides with the most glorious period of Ivan's reign - the period of the conquest of Kazan and Astrakhan.
In the course of 1551 one of the factions of Kazan offered the whole khanate to the young tsar, and on the 20th of August 1552 he stood before its walls with an army of 150,000 men and 50 guns.
The conquest of Kazan was an epoch-making event in the history of eastern Europe.
It was not only the first territorial conquest from the Tatars, before whom Muscovy had humbled herself for generations; at Kazan Asia, in the name of Mahomet, had fought behind its last trench against Christian Europe marshalled beneath the banner of the tsar of Muscovy.
Some of Ivan's advisers, including both Sylvester and Adashev, now advised him to make an end of the Crimean khanate, as he had already made an end of the khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan.
Province Or Government European Russia - Archangel Astrakhan Bessarabia Chernigov Courland Don Cossacks' territory Ekaterinoslav Esthonia Grodno Kaluga Kazan Kiev Kostroma Kovno Kursk Kharkov Kherson Poland Kalisz Kielce Lomza Lublin Grand-Duchy of Finland- Abo-Bjbrneborg Kuopio Nyland Caucasia- Kuban Baku Black Sea territory Daghestan Russia in Asia- Turkestan- Transcaspia Western Siberia- Tobolsk Tomsk Eastern Siberia Irkutsk Yakutsk Transbaikalia Yeniseisk Amur Region Amur Maritime Province Sakhalin It has been found, from a comparison of the densities of population of the various provinces in 1859 with the distribution in 1897, that the centre of density has distinctly moved S., towards the shores of the Black Sea, and W., the greatest increase having taken place in the E.
The following table shows the urban population in the various divisions of the empire in 1897: - There were in European Russia and Poland only twelve cities with more than too,000 inhabitants in 1884; in 1900 there were sixteen, namely, St Petersburg, Moscow, Warsaw, Odessa, Lodz, Riga, Kiev, Kharkov, Vilna, Saratov, Kazan, Ekaterinoslav, Rostov-on-the Don, Astrakhan, Tula and Kishinev.
While only three of these are in middle Russia (Moscow, Tula and Kazan), eight are in S.
(Yuriev or Dorpat, Kazan, Kharkov, Kiev, Moscow, Odessa, St Petersburg, Warsaw and Tomsk), with 19,400 students, 6 medical academies (one for women), 6 theological academies, 6 military academies, 5 philological institutes, 3 Eastern languages institutes,.
From that in the S., and must in turn be subdivided into two partsthe coniferous region and the region Df the oak forests-these being separated by a line drawn through Pskov, Kostroma, Kazan and Ufa.
Bogdanov, Birds and Mammals of the Black-Earth Region of the Volga Basin (in Russian, Kazan, 1871); Karelin for the southern Urals; Kessler for fishes; Strauch, Die Schlangen des Russ.
Siberia; (c) the Volga Finns, or rather the old Bulgarian branch, to which belong the Mordvinians, and the Cheremisses in Kazan, Kostroma and Vyatka, though they are classified by some authors with the following: (d) the Permyaks, or Cis-Uralian Finns, including the Votiaks on the E.
The following are the chief subdivisions of the Turko-Tatars in European Russia: - (i) The Tatars, of whom three different branches must be distinguished: (a) the Kazan Tatars on both banks of the Volga, below the mouth of the Oka, and on the lower Kama, but penetrating farther S.
(3) The Chuvashes, on the right bank of the Volga, in Kazan and Simbirsk.
Sinuous line drawn from Zhitomir via Kiev, Tula and Kazan to Ufa - that is, from W.S.W.
The governments of Orel (shoe factories), Kherson, Vyatka, Nizhniy-Novgorod, Perm, Kiev and Kazan rank next in this respect.
The Volga is reached from central Russia by seven lines of railways, including one to Kazan, and three main lines radiate from the Volga E.
The Golden Horde, long weakened by internal dissensions, had now fallen into several khanates, the chief of which were Kazan, Astrakhan and the Crimea.
In the case of Kazan and Astrakhan the annexation was effected without any great effort in 1552-54, and two years later the Bashkirs, who had likewise formed part of the great Mongol empire, consented to pay tribute.
Many believed, or affected to believe, in the pretender, and in a short time he gathered around him a large force of Cossacks, peasants, Tatars and Tchuvash, swept over the basin of the lower Volga, executed mercilessly the landed proprietors, seized and pillaged the town of Kazan, and kept the whole country in a state of alarm for more than a year.
Some of the more oppressive measures of the previous reign were abolished; the clergy, the nobles and the merchants were exempted from corporal punishment; the central organs of administration were modernized and the Council of the Empire was created; the idea of granting a constitution was academically discussed; great schemes for educating the people were entertained; parish schools, gymnasia, training colleges and ecclesiastical seminaries were founded; the existing universities of Moscow, Vilna and Dorpat were reorganized and new ones founded in Kazan and Kharkov; the great work of serf-emancipation was begun in the Baltic provinces.
De Sacy (in the above-mentioned Memoires); Histoire des Sassanides (texte Persan), by Jaubert (Paris, 18 43); Historia priorum regum Persarum, Persian and Latin, by Jenish (Vienna, 1782); Mirchondi ltistoria Taheridarum, Persian and Latin, by Mitscherlik (Gottingen, 1814, 2nd ed., Berlin, 1819); Historia Samanidarum, Persian and Latin, by Wilken (Gottingen, 1808); Histoire des Samanides, translated by Defremery (Paris, 18 45); Historia Ghaznevidarum, Persian and Latin, by Wilken (Berlin, 1832); Geschichte der Sultane aus dem Geschlechte Bujeh, Persian and German, by Wilken (Berlin, 1835); followed by Erdmann's Erlauterung and Erganzung (Kazan, 1836); Historia Seldschuckidarum, ed.
Yorkshire, Denbigh, Moravia, Bohemia, Baden, Saxony, Vologda, Afa, Kazan, Simbirsk, Samara, Kansas, Wyoming, Oklahoma, Texas (Permo-Carboniferous).
In the second half of the 15th century Bolgari became part of the Kazan kingdom, lost its commercial and political importance, and was annexed to Russia after the fall of Kazan.
Vladimir entered the university of Kazan as a student of law, but was expelled for taking part in revolutionary agitation.
"And who is this?" she asked her governess, peering into the face of her own daughter dressed up as a Kazan-Tartar.
In that circle they discountenanced those who advised hurried preparations for a removal to Kazan of the court and the girls' educational establishments under the patronage of the Dowager Empress.
The Empress Marya, concerned for the welfare of the charitable and educational institutions under her patronage, had given directions that they should all be removed to Kazan, and the things belonging to these institutions had already been packed up.
Among the trees a man with long legs and long, swinging arms, wearing a short jacket, bast shoes, and a Kazan hat, was approaching with long, light steps.
Is the movement of the Russian people eastward to Kazan and Siberia expressed by details of the morbid character of Ivan the Terrible and by his correspondence with Kurbski?