Their influence upon the young tsar was profoundly beneficial, and the period of their administration coincides with the most glorious period of Ivan's reign - the period of the conquest of Kazan and Astrakhan.
In the course of 1551 one of the factions of Kazan offered the whole khanate to the young tsar, and on the 20th of August 1552 he stood before its walls with an army of 150,000 men and 50 guns.
The conquest of Kazan was an epoch-making event in the history of eastern Europe.
Some of Ivan's advisers, including both Sylvester and Adashev, now advised him to make an end of the Crimean khanate, as he had already made an end of the khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan.
The following table shows the urban population in the various divisions of the empire in 1897: - There were in European Russia and Poland only twelve cities with more than too,000 inhabitants in 1884; in 1900 there were sixteen, namely, St Petersburg, Moscow, Warsaw, Odessa, Lodz, Riga, Kiev, Kharkov, Vilna, Saratov, Kazan, Ekaterinoslav, Rostov-on-the Don, Astrakhan, Tula and Kishinev.
While only three of these are in middle Russia (Moscow, Tula and Kazan), eight are in S.
(Yuriev or Dorpat, Kazan, Kharkov, Kiev, Moscow, Odessa, St Petersburg, Warsaw and Tomsk), with 19,400 students, 6 medical academies (one for women), 6 theological academies, 6 military academies, 5 philological institutes, 3 Eastern languages institutes,.
From that in the S., and must in turn be subdivided into two partsthe coniferous region and the region Df the oak forests-these being separated by a line drawn through Pskov, Kostroma, Kazan and Ufa.
Bogdanov, Birds and Mammals of the Black-Earth Region of the Volga Basin (in Russian, Kazan, 1871); Karelin for the southern Urals; Kessler for fishes; Strauch, Die Schlangen des Russ.
Siberia; (c) the Volga Finns, or rather the old Bulgarian branch, to which belong the Mordvinians, and the Cheremisses in Kazan, Kostroma and Vyatka, though they are classified by some authors with the following: (d) the Permyaks, or Cis-Uralian Finns, including the Votiaks on the E.
The following are the chief subdivisions of the Turko-Tatars in European Russia: - (i) The Tatars, of whom three different branches must be distinguished: (a) the Kazan Tatars on both banks of the Volga, below the mouth of the Oka, and on the lower Kama, but penetrating farther S.
(3) The Chuvashes, on the right bank of the Volga, in Kazan and Simbirsk.
Sinuous line drawn from Zhitomir via Kiev, Tula and Kazan to Ufa - that is, from W.S.W.
The governments of Orel (shoe factories), Kherson, Vyatka, Nizhniy-Novgorod, Perm, Kiev and Kazan rank next in this respect.
The Volga is reached from central Russia by seven lines of railways, including one to Kazan, and three main lines radiate from the Volga E.
The Golden Horde, long weakened by internal dissensions, had now fallen into several khanates, the chief of which were Kazan, Astrakhan and the Crimea.
In the case of Kazan and Astrakhan the annexation was effected without any great effort in 1552-54, and two years later the Bashkirs, who had likewise formed part of the great Mongol empire, consented to pay tribute.
Many believed, or affected to believe, in the pretender, and in a short time he gathered around him a large force of Cossacks, peasants, Tatars and Tchuvash, swept over the basin of the lower Volga, executed mercilessly the landed proprietors, seized and pillaged the town of Kazan, and kept the whole country in a state of alarm for more than a year.
De Sacy (in the above-mentioned Memoires); Histoire des Sassanides (texte Persan), by Jaubert (Paris, 18 43); Historia priorum regum Persarum, Persian and Latin, by Jenish (Vienna, 1782); Mirchondi ltistoria Taheridarum, Persian and Latin, by Mitscherlik (Gottingen, 1814, 2nd ed., Berlin, 1819); Historia Samanidarum, Persian and Latin, by Wilken (Gottingen, 1808); Histoire des Samanides, translated by Defremery (Paris, 18 45); Historia Ghaznevidarum, Persian and Latin, by Wilken (Berlin, 1832); Geschichte der Sultane aus dem Geschlechte Bujeh, Persian and German, by Wilken (Berlin, 1835); followed by Erdmann's Erlauterung and Erganzung (Kazan, 1836); Historia Seldschuckidarum, ed.
Yorkshire, Denbigh, Moravia, Bohemia, Baden, Saxony, Vologda, Afa, Kazan, Simbirsk, Samara, Kansas, Wyoming, Oklahoma, Texas (Permo-Carboniferous).
In the second half of the 15th century Bolgari became part of the Kazan kingdom, lost its commercial and political importance, and was annexed to Russia after the fall of Kazan.
Vladimir entered the university of Kazan as a student of law, but was expelled for taking part in revolutionary agitation.
Nalivkin, Short History of Khokand (French trans., Paris, 1889); Niazi Mohammed, Tarihi Shahrohi, or History of the Rulers of Ferghana, edited by Pantusov (Kazan, 1885); Maksheev, Historical Sketch of Turkestan and the Advance of the Russians (St Petersburg,1890); N.
He reached Persia by way of Moscow, Kazan and Astrakhan, landing at Nizabad in Daghestan after a voyage in the Caspian; from Shemakha in Shirvan he made an expedition to the Baku peninsula, being perhaps the first modern scientist to visit these fields of "eternal fire."
Allying himself both in cause and by family connexion with Kurgan, the dethroner and destroyer of Kazan, chief of the western Jagatai, he was deputed to invade Khorasan at the head of a thousand horse.
After the conquest of the Kazan Empire by Russia, part of them migrated north-eastwards to the basins of the Kama and Byelaya, and thus the Meshchers divided into two branches.
In Altai (Central Siberia) the Archimandrite Macarius, and among the Tatars in south-east Russia with headquarters at Kazan the great linguist Ilminski, did similar work.
Made Voluinsky governor of Kazan for a short time, and he held the same post for two years (1728-30) under Peter II.
Korsakov, From the Lives of Russian Statesmen of the X VIIIth Century (Rus.) (Kazan, 1891).
3 In Kazan also the standard of learning seems to have been raised by Russian and Western scholars.
This industry centres in the great forest governments of Viatka, Nizhniy-Novgorod, Kostroma, Kazan, Perm and Simbirsk.
By steamboat down the Volga from Kazan and then up the Kama.
Bolgari, Nizhniy-Novgorod, Kazan and Vasilsursk have successively been its seat since the 10th century.
With the fall of Kazan, and the opening of free navigation on the Volga, it became the starting-place for the "caravan" of boats yearly sent to the lower Volga under the protection of a military force, whilst the thick forests of the neighbourhood favoured the development of shipbuilding.
The average date of the break-up is April 11 th at Tver, and 14 days later about Kostroma, from which point a regular acceleration is observed (April 16th at Kazan, April 7th at Tsaritsyn, and March 17th at Astrakhan).
With the capture of Kazan (1552) the Russians found the lower Volga open to their boats, and eight years afterwards they were masters of the mouth of the river at Astrakhan.
Korsakov, From the Lives of Russian Statesmen of the X VIIIth Century (Rus.) (Kazan, 1891); A.
There is more than one meaning of Kazan discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
(1) The Kazan Tatars, descendants of the Kipchaks settled on the Volga in the 13th century, where they mingled with survivors of the old Bulgarians and partly with Finnish stems. They number about half a million in the government of Kazan, about 100,000 in each of the governments of Ufa, Samara and Simbirsk, and about 300,000 in Vyatka, Saratov, Tambov, Penza, Nizhniy-Novgorod, Perm and Orenburg; some 15,000 belonging to the same stem have migrated to Ryazan, or have been settled as prisoners in the 16th and 17th centuries in Lithuania (Vilna, Grodno and Podolia); and there are some 2000 in St Petersburg, where they pursue the callings of coachmen and waiters in restaurants.
The Kazan Tatars speak a pure Turkish dialect; they are middle-sized, broadshouldered and strong, and mostly have black eyes, a straight nose and salient cheek bones.
Besides the well-known works of Castren, which are a very rich source of information on the subject, Schiefner (St Petersburg academy of science), Donner, Ahlqvist and other explorers of the Ural-Altaians, as also those of the Russian historians Soloviev, Kostomarov, Bestuzhev-Ryumin, Schapov, and Ilovaiskiy, the following containing valuable information may be mentioned: the publications of the Russian Geographical Society and its branches; the Russian Etnographicheskiy Sbornik; the Izvestia of the Moscow society of the amateurs of natural science; the works of the Russian ethnographical congresses; Kostrov's researches on the Siberian Tatars in the memoirs of the Siberian branch of the geographical society; Radlov's Reise durch den Altai, Aus Sibirien; " Picturesque Russia" (Zhivopisnaya Rossiya); Semenov's and Potanin's "Supplements" to Ritter's Asien: Harkavi's report to the congress at Kazan; Hartakhai's "Hist.
Kazan, Russia (Government) >>
The Danube (q.v.) enters Rumania through the Verciorova or Kazan 2 Pass.
Fedchenko, Album of Views of Russian Turkestan (1885); Navilkin's History of the Khanate of Kokand (in Russian, Kazan, 1885); A.
The chief navigable river of Servia is the Danube, which enters the country at Belgrade and pierces the Transylvanian Alps by way of the Kazan (i.e.
At intervening points are still found many notable Roman remains, such as Trajan's road, a marvellous work on the right bank of the river in the rocky Kazan defile (separating the Balkans on the south from the Carpathians on the north), where a contemporary commemorative tablet is still conspicuously visible.
It flows eastward until it has passed through the stupendous Kazan defile, in which its waters (at Semlin 1700 yds.
In prehistoric times a great part of the plains of Hungary formed a large inland sea, which ultimately burst its bounds, whereupon the Danube forced its way through the Carpathians at the Kazan defile.
Below the Greben, the Prigrada rocky bank nearly blocked the river at the point where it widens out after leaving the Kazan defile.
BOLGARI, or Bolgary, a ruined town of Russia, in the gov ernment of Kazan, 4 m.
These and other antiquities collected here (1722) are preserved in museums at Kazan, Moscow and St Petersburg.
The city of Bolgari was destroyed by the Mongols in 1238, and again by Tamerlane early in the following century, after which it served as the capital of the Khans (sovereign princes) of the Golden Horde of Mongols, and finally, in the second half of the 15th century it became a part of the principality of Kazan, and so eventually of Russia.
"And who is this?" she asked her governess, peering into the face of her own daughter dressed up as a Kazan-Tartar.
In that circle they discountenanced those who advised hurried preparations for a removal to Kazan of the court and the girls' educational establishments under the patronage of the Dowager Empress.
Among the trees a man with long legs and long, swinging arms, wearing a short jacket, bast shoes, and a Kazan hat, was approaching with long, light steps.
Is the movement of the Russian people eastward to Kazan and Siberia expressed by details of the morbid character of Ivan the Terrible and by his correspondence with Kurbski?