Courageously facing the difficulties of his new position, which included a serious lack of funds, he deposed the subadar of Bengal, Mir Jafar, whom he replaced by his son-in-law, Mir Kasim, a circumstance which increased the influence of England in the province.
Vansittart sought to check this, and in 1762 he made a treaty with Mir Kasim, but the majority of his council were against him and in the following year this was repudiated.
Abu '1 Kasim Mansur (or Hasan), who took the nom de plume of Firdousi, author of the epic poem the Shahnama, or "Book of Kings," a complete history of Persia in nearly 60,000 verses, was born at Shadab, a suburb of Tus, about the year 329 of the Hegira (941 A.D.), or earlier.
Being presented to the seven poets who were then engaged on the projected epic, Abu 'I Kasim was admitted to their meetings, and on one occasion improvised a verse, at Mahmud's request, in praise of his favourite Ayaz, with such success that the sultan bestowed upon him the name of Firdousi, saying that he had converted his assemblies into paradise (Firdous).
He was buried in a garden, but Abu'l Kasim Jurjani, chief sheikh of Tus, refused to read the usual prayers over his tomb, alleging that he was an infidel, and had devoted his life to the glorification of fire-worshippers and misbelievers.
In northern Arabia the Syrian desert and the great Nafud (Nefud) have been crossed by several travellers, though a large area remains unexplored in the north-east between Kasim and the gulf.
On his arrival at Hofuf, Sadlier found that Ibrahim had already left Deraiya, but still hoping to intercept him before quitting Nejd, he followed up the retreating Egyptians through Yemama, and Wushm to Ras in Kasim, where he caught up the main body of Ibrahim's army, though the pasha himself had gone on to Medina.
From the wells of Shakik he crossed the waterless Nafud in four days to Jubba, and after a halt there in the nomad camps, he moved on to Hail, already a thriving town, and the capital of the Shammar state whose limits included all northern Arabia from Kasim to the Syrian border.
Following Wallin's route across the desert by Mean and Jauf, Palgrave and his companion, a Syrian Christian, reached Hail in July 1862; here they were hospitably entertained by the amir Talal, nephew of the founder of the Ibn Rashid dynasty, and after some stay passed on with his countenance through Kasim to southern Nejd.
Nolde - who arrived there in 1893, not long after the amir had by his victory over the combined forces of Riad and Kasim brought the whole of Nejd under his dominion.
Kasim and Wushm, where the water in the wadi beds rises nearly to the ground level, numerous fertile oases are found with thriving villages and towns.
Rumma converge in lower Kasim, and at Aneza Doughty says its bed is 3 m.
East of Kasim the land rises gradually to the high plateau culminating in the ranges of Jebel Tuwek and J.
Doughty adds that the Nejd highlands between Kasim and Mecca are watered yearly by seasonable rains, which at Taif are expected about the end of August and last commonly from four to six weeks.
Another important route is that taken by the Persian or Shia pilgrims from Bagdad and Kerbela across the desert, by the wells of aina, to Bureda in Kasim; thence across the steppes of western Nejd till it crosses the Hejaz border at the Ria Mecca, 50 m.
For a time it looked as if the supremacy of the Wahhabi empire was to be renewed; El Hasa, Harik, Kasim and Asir returned to their allegiance, but over Oman and Yemen Fesal never re-established his dominion, and the Bahrein sheiks with British support kept their independence.
The principal mosque of the town is a church of the crusaders converted to Mahommedan worship. Towards the end of the 18th century it was the headquarters of the turbulent sheikh Kasim el-Ahmad.
MAHOMMED KASIM FERISHTA (c. 1570 - c. 1611), Persian historian, was born at Astrabad, on the shores of the Caspian Sea.
The district was acquired by the East India Company under the treaty with Nawab Mir Kasim in 1760, and confirmed by the emperor Shah Alam in 1765.
Kasim invaded and conquered the Hindus of Sind in the name of Walid I., caliph of Damascus, of the Omayyad line.
In 1761 it was found expedient and profitable to dethrone Mir Jafar, the nawab of Murshidabad, and substitute his son-in-law, Mir Kasim, in his place.
But Mir Kasim proved to possess a will of his own, and to cherish dreams of independence.
But as soon as regular warfare commenced Mir Kasim met with no more successes.
Chittagong was ceded to the East India Company by Nawab Mir Kasim in 1760.