McCrindle, Hakluyt Society, 1897), the Kashmir chronicle Rajatarangini (trans.
Abisares) between the same two rivers higher up, on the confines of Kashmir (Stein, Rajatarangini, transl.
On the Pamirs Russia has since 1885 been conterminous with British India (Kashmir); but the boundary then swings away N.
Nain Singh explored the sources of the Indus and of the Upper Brahmaputra in the years 1865-1867; and in 1874-1875 he followed a line from the eastern frontiers of Kashmir to the Tengri Nor lake and thence to Lhasa, in which city he remained for some months.
The great highland plateau which tion stretches from the Himalaya northwards to Chinese Turkestan, and from the frontier of Kashmir eastwards to China, has now been defined with comparative geographical exactness.
On the north the Chinese Turkestan explorations are now brought into survey connexion with Kashmir and India.
No longer do we regard the Kuen-lun mountains, which extend from the frontiers of Kashmir, north of Leh, almost due east to the Chinese province of Kansu, as the southern limit of the Gobi or Turkestan depression.
He was not, however, killed, but took refuge in Kashmir, where after a few years he seized the throne and then attacked the neighbouring kingdom of Gandhara, perpetrating terrible massacres.
Toramana's coins are found plentifully in Kashmir, which, therefore, probably formed part of the Mina dominions before Mihiragula's time, so that when he fled there after his defeat he was taking refuge, if not with his own subjects, at least with a kindred clan.
According to his view, the seeds of the peach, cultivated for ages in China, might have been carried by the Chinese into Kashmir, Bokhara, and Persia between the period of the Sanskrit emigration and the Graeco-Persian period.
It has long been cultivated in Persia and Kashmir, and is supposed to have been introduced into China by the Mongol invasion.
In the case of the squamous epithelial cancer of the anterior abdominal wall found so frequently in the natives of Kashmir, the position of the cancer is peculiar to this people, and is due to the chronic irritation following on repeated burns from using the " kangri " - a small earthenware vessel containing a charcoal fire enclosed in basket-work, and suspended round the waist, to assist in maintaining warmth in the extreme cold of the hills of Kashmir.
Ketzioth), the root of the Aucklandia Costus (Falconer), native of Kashmir; frankincense (Heb.
Karkom), the stigmata of Crocus sativus, a native originally of Kashmir; spikenard (Heb.
From the Pir-Panjal range of Kashmir the markhor extends westwards into Baltistan, Astor, Hunza, Afghanistan and the trans-Indus ranges of the Punjab.
In the Yemen mountains the wal, a wild goat with massive horns, similar to the Kashmir ibex, is found; monkeys also abound.
The deodar forms forests on the mountains of Afghanistan, North Beluchistan and the north-west Himalayas, flourishing in all the higher mountains from Nepal up to Kashmir, at an elevation of from 5500 to 12,000 ft.; on the peaks to the northern side of the Boorung Pass it grows to a height of 60 to 70 ft.
The question of Dardistan is debated at length in Leitner's Dardistan (1877); Drew's Jummoo and Kashmir Territories (1875); Bidduiph's Tribes of the Hindu-Kush (1880) and Durand's The Making of a Frontier (1899).
But first he designed an invasion of Kashmir (Tors), which was not carried out, as his progress was checked at Loh-kot, a strong hill fort in the north-west of the Punjab.
The Angora goat is often confounded with the Kashmir, but is in reality quite distinct.
The Kashmir, or rather Tibet, goat has a delicate head, with semi-pendulous ears, which are both long and wide.
This is the material of which the far-famed and costly shawls are made, which at one time had such a demand that, it is stated, 16,000 looms were kept in constant work at Kashmir in their manufacture.
There are several varieties possessing this valuable quality, but those of Kashmir, Tibet and Mongolia are the most esteemed.
Sapphires are also found in Kashmir, where they occur, associated with tourmaline, in the Zanskar range, especially near the village of Soomjam.
It is also said to be used as writing paper by the mountaineers; and in Kashmir it is in general use for roofing houses.
During a tour through Kashmir with Sir Henry Lawrence he kept the purse and Sir Henry could never obtain an account from him; subsequently Sir George Lawrence accused him of embezzling the funds of the Lawrence Asylum at Kasauli; while Sir Neville Chamberlain in a published letter says of the third brother, Lord Lawrence, "I am bound to say that Lord Lawrence had no opinion of Hodson's integrity in money matters.
The family is divisible into two sub-families, of which the first, or Sminthinae, is represented only by the genus Sminthus, containing a few species which range from Denmark into Western Asia, Kashmir and China.
By Kashmir and the Punjab, and on the W.
This territory came to be known to Europeans as " Tibet " evidently because the great plateau with its uplands bordering the frontiers of China, Mongolia and Kashmir, through which travellers communicated with this country, is called by the natives T o-bhot (written stod-bod) or " High Bod" or " Tibet," which designation in the loose orthography of travellers assumed a variety of forms. Thus in Chinese annals are found T'u-bat (5th century, A.D.), Tu-po-te, Tie-bu-te, T'u-bo-te (loth and firth centuries) and at the present day T'u-fan (fan, as Bushell shows, being the same.
The loftiest lake so far as observed is Hospa t'so, near the Lingshi plain on the Kashmir frontier; its altitude is given as 17,930 ft.
In western Tibet, bordering the Kashmir frontier, the climate differs little from that of Ladak.
About the same time in the extreme north the post of British resident in Gilgit was re-established, and the supremacy of Kashmir over the adjoining petty chiefships of Hunza-Nagar was enforced (1891-1892).
The most hopeful ground, however, for the industry is Kashmir, where Sir Thomas Wardle reported that the silk was of as high a quality as from any part of the world.
Kashmir shawls were at one time famous, but the industry is practically extinct.
The Kanishka commentaries were written in the Sanskrit language, perhaps because the Kashmir and northern priests who formed his council belonged to isolated Aryan colonies, which had been little influenced by the growth of the Indian vernacular dialects.
In this way Kanishka and his Kashmir council became in some degree to the northern or Tibetan Buddhists what Asoka and his council had been to the Buddhists of Ceylon and the south.'
In Kashmir king and people were devout Buddhists, under the teaching of five hundred monasteries and five thousand monks.
In the r Ith century, only outlying states, such as Kashmir and Orissa, remained faithful; and before the Mahommedans fairly came upon the scene Buddhism as a popular faith had disappeared from India.
Asoka's empire included the greater part of Afghanistan, a large part of Baluchistan, Sind, Kashmir, Nepal, Bengal to the mouths of the Ganges, and peninsular India down to the Palar river.
3 From his capital at Purushapura (Peshawar) he not only maintained his hold on north-western India, but conquered Kashmir, attacked Pataliputra, carried on a successful war with the Parthians, and led an army across the appalling passes of the Taghdumbash Pamir to the conquest of Kashgar, Yarkand and Khotan.
It is not, however, as a conqueror that Kanishka mainly lives on in tradition, but as a Buddhist monarch, second in reputation only to Asoka, and as the convener of the celebrated council of Kashmir already mentioned.
Kabul submitted in 1581, Kashmir in 1587, Sind in 1592, and Kandahar in 1594.