On the east the Kachin, Shan and Karen hills, extending from the valley of the Irrawaddy into China far beyond the Salween gorge, form a continuous barrier and boundary, and tail off into a narrow range which forms the eastern watershed of the Salween and separates Tenasserim from Siam.
The northern portion of the Karen hills is at present dealt with on the principle of political as distinguished from administrative control.
Farther north the country is peopled by Laos, scattered in villages along all the river banks, and by numerous communities of Shan, Karen, Kamoo and other tribes living in the uplands and on the hilltops.
Of this total about 3,000,000 are Siamese, about 2,000,000 Laos, about 400,000 Chinese, 115,000 Malay, 80,000 Cambodian and the rest Burmese, Indian, Mohn, Karen, Annamite, Kache, Lawa and others.
The Ephthalites invaded and plundered Persia for two years, till at last a noble Persian from the old family of Karen, Zarmihr (or Sokhra), restored some degree of order.
The province falls into three natural divisions: Arakan with the Chin hills, the Irrawaddy basin, and the old province of Tenasserim, together with the portion of the Shan and Karen-ni states in the basin of the Salween, and part of Kengtung in the western basin of the Mekong.
The whole is comprised in the districts of Toungoo and Thaton, part of the Karen-ni hills, with the Salween hill tract and the northern parts of Amherst, which form the northern portion of the Tenasserim administrative division.
The surface of this part of the country is mountainous and much intersected with streams. Northward from this lies the major portion of the Southern Shan States and Karen-ni and a narrowing strip along the Salween of the Northern Shan States.
This river, rising in the Sham-Karen hills, flows first due north and then southward through the Kyaukse, Yamethin and Toungoo districts, its line being followed by the Mandalay-Rangoon railway as far south as Nyaunglebin in the Pegu district.
(e) - The Karen group.
The states included in eastern and western Karen-ni are not part of British India, and are not subject to any of the laws in force in the Shan States, but they are under the supervision of the superintendent of the southern Shan States.
This is navigable for native boats throughout the year to the point where it sinks underground in Karen-ni.
KAREN-NI, the country of the Red Karens, a collection of small states, formerly independent, but now feudatory to Burma.
The small states of western Karen-ni were formerly all subject to Bawlake, but the subordination has now ceased.
Karen-ni consists of two widely differing tracts of country, which roughly mark now, and formerly actually did mark, the division into east and west.
Parts of this ridge form the boundary between eastern Karen-ni and Mawkmai on the west and Siam on the east.
The Salween throughout Karen-ni is navigated by large native craft.
Little of the history of the Red Karens is known; but it appears to be generally admitted that Bawlake was originally the chief state of the whole country, east and west, but eastern Karen-ni under Papaw-gyi early became the most powerful.
Eastern Karen-ni was never reduced until Sawlapaw, having defied the British government, was overcome and deposed by General Collett in the beginning of 1889.
The independence of the Western Karen-ni states had been guaranteed by the British government in a treaty with King Mindon in 1875.
The trade in teak is the chief or only source of wealth in Karen-ni.
Others lie on both banks of the Nam Pawn, and in western Karen-ni on the Nam Tu.
The Red Karen women weave their own and their husbands' clothing.
A characteristic manufacture is the pa-si or Karen metal drum, which is made at Ngwedaung.
It is thought that the population of Karen-ni is steadily decreasing.
The birth-rate of the people is considered to exceed the death-rate by very little, and the Red Karen habit of life is most unwholesome.
The Karen Christian communities are strong numerically and have a good name for self-support.
Three ' mountain ranges traverse the district - the Pegu Yomas, the Karen, and the Nat-taung or- "Great Watershed" - all of which have a north and south direction, and are covered for the most part with dense forest.
A peculiar variety of wild dog exists in the Karen hills of Burma, thus described from a specimen in confinement.
The Suren (Surenas, vide supra, p. 798) and Karen (Carenes, Tac. Ann.
Only in tho secluded districts of northern Media (Tabaristan), the generals of the house of Karen (Spahpat, Ispehbed) maintained themselves for a century as vassals of the caliphs exactly as Atropates and his dynasty had done before them.