His system shows the influence of Kant's destructive criticism of the claims of Pure Reason, recognition of the value of morally conditioned knowledge, and doctrine of the kingdom of ends; of Schleiermacher's historical treatment of Christianity, regulative use of the idea of religious fellowship, emphasis on the importance of religious feeling; and of Lotze's theory of knowledge and treatment of personality.
He quotes (p. 57) with approval Kant's words, "The death of the body may indeed be the end of the sensational use of our mind, but only the beginning of the intellectual use.
Kant's distinction of " deist " and " theist " may be found in the Critique of Pure Reason, " Transcendental Dialectic," Book II.
Every theistic system, or almost every one, makes provision in some way for Kant's three postulates.
Kant's point is ignored, that deductions from these " imaginary " figures apply to the " real " world of experience.
This portion of the ethical theory does curious service in Kant's doctrine of religion.
It is an eternal weakness in our moral being which makes us constantly squint aside from the thought of duty towards the forbidden motive - wincing under pain, or hungering after joy, 1 Mansel's term for Kant's " practical."
It must be carefully distinguished from Kant's " regulative," which refers to knowledge - regulative in contrast to constitutive of knowledge - not to practice.
But there are gaps in Kant's system - a imperfect gap between sensation and the sense-forms of time and space; a gap between sense-forms and thought; a gap between the lower but practicable processes of the Understanding and the higher but unrealizable ideas of Reason.
And thus Kant's idealism is incomplete.
His Philosophy of Nature - one of the least admired parts of his system - is the answer from his point of view to Kant's assertion that a " perceptive understanding " is for us impossible.
Hegel offers a supposed proof that Time and Space, Matter, Nature, are ascertainable and definable 2 This is Kant's positive refutation of Hume's scepticism.
Vehement recoil from Kant's deification of formal logic with its principle of " analytic " tautology.
Quite a different view of necessity is the moral necessity pointed to by Kant's " Practical Reason."
One great change and only one since Kant's day has affected the outlook upon theistic problems - the increasing belief in evolution.
The Rational Psychology formulates immortality on the ground that the immaterial soul has no parts to suffer decay - the argument which Kant's Critique of Pure Reason " refutes" with special reference to the statement of it by Moses Mendelssohn.
On one side; another battery of Kant's was aimed against Hume.
We have already spoken of Kant's peculiar philosophical positions.
Perhaps the attack on cause as used in the cosmological argument is independent of Kant's philosophical peculiarities.
A more entirely novel and more general principle of Kant's attack upon theism is the challenge of our right to build up the idea of God bit by bit out of different arguments.
It is no more than characteristic of Kant's whole speculative philosophy that he should' think the Ontological argument the one which comes nearest to st,-cess (yet the Ontological argument is held to prove - or rather to point out - not that God must exist, but that we think of him as necessary if we think of him as existing at all).
On the other hand, Kant's religion is of a type which requires a sort of deistic God, standing outside the world and constraining it into moral paths, or standing outside our moral struggles and rewarding our goodness.
The main line in pure philosophy runs on from Kant's wavering and sceptical idealism to the all-including gnosis of Hegel.'
Empiricism is restated by Paley, who is Kant's younger contemporary as a man and also on the whole as a writer.
In this way, the attributes are suggestively allotted among the four traditional proofs; 7 but we miss an explicit rebutting of Kant's hostile assumption, that it is incompetent for us to take the thought of God piecemeal.
Definite theism, bearing the mark of Kant's thought throughout, is found in Hermann Lotze.
And there was the positive ethical element in Kant's theism.
We now find Kant's intellectual scepticism borrowed by W.
Emphasis on moral motives is plain in Kant's theism as in Butler's.
If this tendency is to take effect, a certain part of Kant's rational scepticism must be accepted.
Herrmann's appeal to Kant's moral teaching is in close analogy to the more thoughtful forms of intuitionalist ethics.
If we try to bring the contents of theism under Kant's three traditional arguments, then moral and aesthetic considerations - the " values " - fall under the Design argument or the study of teleology; albeit there is a great gap between Paley's supernatural watchmaker and any moral argument or appeal to the beautiful.
Kant's reliance on the moral argument alone goes with his scepticism.
It is probable that Leibnitz's notion of time and space, which approaches Kant's theory, led him to attach but little importance to the successive order of the world.
- Kant's relation to the doctrine of evolution is a many-sided one.
Yet, as Strauss and others have shown, Kant's mind betrayed a decided leaning at times to a more mechanical conception of organic forms as related by descent.
His theory of the development of free-will (the objective spirit), which takes its start from Kant's conception of history, with its three stages of legal right, morality as determined by motive and instinctive goodness (Sittlichkeit), might almost as well be expressed in terms of a thoroughly naturalistic doctrine of human development.
Kant's lectures on physical geography were delivered in the university of Konigsberg from 1765 onwards.'
The evolutionary theory, more than hinted at in Kant's " Physical Geography," has, since the writings of Charles Darwin, become the unifying principle in geography.
While he thus created a new and more ethical " rationalism," Kant's many-sided influence, alike in philosophy and in theology, worked to further issues.
(1814), pp. 248-284; Kant's Cosmogony, translated by Professor Hastie; Sir John Herschel, Outlines of Astronomy; Professor S.
Similarly, Reid's assertion of the essential distinction between space or extension and feeling or any succession of feelings may be compared with Kant's doctrine in the Aesthetic. " Space," he says, "whether tangible or visible, is not so properly an object [Kant's" matter "1 as a necessary concomitant of the objects both of sight and touch."
Historical and critical - Das religiose Bewusstsein der Menschheit; Geschichte der Metaphysik (2 vols.); Kant's Erkenntnistheorie; Kritische Grundlegung des transcendentalen Realismus; Ober die dialektische Methode; studies of Schelling, Lotze, von Kirchmann; Zur Geschichte des Pessimismus; Neukantianismus, Schopenhauerismus, Hegelianismus; Geschichte der deutschen Asthetik seit Kant; Die Krisis des Christentums in der modernen Theologie; Philosophische Fragen der Gegenwart; Ethische Studien; Moderne Psychologie; Das Christentum des neuen Testaments; Die Weltanschauung der modernen Physik.
Admitting Kant's hypothesis that by inner sense we are conscious of mental states only, he holds that this consciousness constitutes a knowledge of the "thing-in-itself" - which Kant denies.
It was imperative that everyone understood the rules so that this would not happen again.
To Kant's lectures and conversations he further owed something of his large interest in cosmological and anthropological problems. Among the writers whom he most carefully read were Plato, Hume, Shaftesbury, Leibnitz, Diderot and Rousseau.
In the Kalligone (1800), work directed against Kant's Kritik der Urteilskraft, Herder argues for the close connexion of the beautiful and the good.
See Kehrbach's edition of Kant's Traume eines Geistersehers (Leipzig, 1880).
Emerson's Representative Men (1850); Kant's Trriume eines Geistersehers (1766; the best edition by Kehrbach, Leipzig, 1880); J.
He rightly felt that the reception of Kant's doctrines was impeded by their phraseology.