It was here, at the Sakurada Gate, that Ii Kamon-no-Kami, prime minister of the shogun's government; was assassinated by the anti-foreign party in 1860.
The same word does not appear elsewhere; but we find its two parts separately, such as Gurung pre, Murmi pre, Taksya phre and Takpa gyet, Serpa gye, Garo chet, &c. Rta (horse) is reduced to to in speech, but we find ri, rhyi, roh in Sokpa, Horpa, Tochu, Minyak, and td, tah, teh, t'ay in Lhopa, Serpa, Murmi, Kami, Takpa, &c., both with the same meaning.
The Japanese Kami are the " higher " powers, the superi,.
Just as the emperor is kami, and provincial officers of rank, so also mountains, rivers, the sea, thunder, winds, and even animals like the tiger, wolf or fox, are all kami.7 The spirits of the dead also become kami, of varying character and position; some reside in the temples built in their honour; some hover near their tombs; but they are constantly active, mingling in the vast multitude of agencies which makes every event in the universe, in the language of Motowori (1730-1801), the act of the Kami.
8 Everywhere from birth to death the entire life of man is encompassed and guided by the Kami, which are sometimes reckoned at 8,000,000 in number.
S Out of the vast mass of undifferentiated powers certain functional deities appear; and the Kami of Japan to-day who preside over the gilds and crafts of industry and agriculture, over the trees and grasses of the field, the operations of the household, and even the kitchenrange, the saucepan, the rice-pot, the well, the garden, the scarecrow and the privy, have their counterparts in the lists of ancient Rome, the indigitamenta over whose contents Tertullian and Augustine made merry.
2 The Chinese Shin were similarly organized; so (less elaborately) were the Japanese Kami;" and the Roman lares, the old local land-gods, found their highest co-ordinating term in the Lares Augusti, just as the Genius was extended to the legion and the colony, and finally to Rome itself.
13 Hirata's morning prayer in the last century included 800 myriads of celestial kami, 800 myriads of ancestral kami, the 1500 myriads to whom are consecrated the great and small temples in all provinces, all islands, and all places of the great land of eight islands, &c.
Hirata answered by anticipation the modern reproach against Shinto, founded on the absence of any definite morality connected with it, by laying down the simple rule, " Act so that you need not be ashamed before the Kami of the unseen."