A notable feature of the conference was the presence of the Swedish bishop of Kalmar, who presented a letter from the archbishop of Upsala, as a tentative advance towards closer relations between the Anglican Church and the Evangelical Church of Sweden.
Among the didactic poets may be mentioned Lewis Nagy, George Kalmar, John Illey and Paul Bertalanfi, especially noted for his rhymed " Life of St Stephen, first Hungarian king," DicsOseges Sz.
On New Year's Day 1570 Frederick's difficulties seemed so overwhelming that he threatened to abdicate; but the peace of Stettin came in time to reconcile all parties, and though Frederick had now to relinquish his ambitious dream of re-establishing the Union of Kalmar, he had at least succeeded in maintaining the supremacy of Denmark in the north.
Of Denmark, a nephew of the elector of Norway Saxony, came to the throne in 1513, bent on bringing Sweden and Norway, over which he nominally ruled in accordance with the terms of the Union of Kalmar (1397), completely under his control.
The town appears to have been frequently chosen as the meetingplace of the rulers and delegates of the three northern kingdoms; and under the union of Kalmar it was appointed to be the place for the election of a new Scandinavian monarch whenever necessary.
Its castle was the seat of the kings of Sodermanland, and after those of Stockholm and Kalmar was the strongest in Sweden.
In the war with Sweden, generally known as the "Kalmar War," because its chief operation was the capture by the Danes of Kalmar, the eastern fortress of Sweden, Christian compelled Gustavus Adolphus to give way on all essential points (treaty of Knared, 10th of January 1613).
Sixteen days later were signed the articles of Kalmar regulating the future relations between Poland and Sweden, when in process of time Sigismund should succeed his father as king of Sweden.
He landed at Kalmar with 5000 men, mostly Hungarian mercenaries; the fortress opened its gates to him at once and the capital and the country people welcomed him.
After fruitless negotiations with his uncle, Sigismund advanced with his army from Kalmar, but was defeated by the duke at Stangebro on the 25th of September.
There he found an asylum till the 20th of May 1520, when he chartered a ship to Kalmar, one of the few Swedish fortresses which held out against Christian II.
"We advise and exhort you," he wrote to the governor of Kalmar, "to put no hope or trust in the Danes, or in their sweet scribbling, inasmuch as they mean nothing at all by it except how best they may deceive and betray us Swedes."
KALMAR (CALMAR), a seaport of Sweden on the Baltic coast, chief town of the district (lain) of Kalmar, 250 m.
Kalmar, a town of great antiquity, was formerly strongly fortified, and there remains the island-fortress of Kalmarnahus, dating partly from the 12th century, but mainly from the 16th and 17th.
This stronghold stood several sieges in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, and the town gives name to the treaty (Kalmar Union) by which Sweden, Norway and Denmark were united into one kingdom in 1397.
Kalmar has an artificial harbour admitting vessels drawing 19 ft.
The work of Valdemar was completed and consolidated by his illustrious daughter Margaret (1 375 - 1 4 12), whose crowning achievement was the Union of Kalmar (1397), whereby she sought to combine the three northern kingdoms The Union f o into a single state dominated by Denmark.
Twice during this period Denmark and Sweden measured their strength in the open field, on the first occasion in the " Scandinavian Seven Years' War " (1562-70), on the second in the " Kalmar War " (1611-13), and on both occasions Denmark prevailed, though the temporary advantage she gained was more than neutralized by the intense feeling of hostility which the unnatural wars, between the two kindred peoples of Scandinavia, left behind them.
Clearly it was Denmark's wisest policy to seek a close alliance with Sweden in their common interests, and after the conclusion of the " Kalmar War " the two countries did remain at peace for the next thirty-one years.
The first royal edict written in Danish is dated 1386; and the Act of Union at Kalmar, written in 1397, is the most important piece of the vernacular of the 14th century.
It occurs also in Ostergotland, Kalmar and Kronoberg.
At Kalmar, however, on the Baltic opposite Oland, the average is 14.6 in.
South of a line running, roughly, from the foot of Lake Vener to Kalmar on the Baltic coast the beech begins to appear, and in Sickle and the southern part of the Cattegat seaboard becomes predominant in the woods which break the wide cultivated places.
2 Island included in Kalmar Lan.
That of Kalmar, on its island, is specially fine, while those at Vestervik (Stakkholm), Malrno, Falkenberg and Varberg may also be mentioned.
Artificial harbours are consequently few, but those at Helsingborg, Malmo, Halmstad, Ystad and Kalmar may be mentioned.
On Kalmar Sound are Kalmar and Oskarshamn; and continuing northward, Vestervik, Soderkoping at the head of the inlet Slatbaken, Norrkoping, similarly situated on Braviken, and Stockholm, far within the skargard.
In 1388, at the request of the Swedes themselves, Albert was driven out by Margaret, regent of Denmark Union of and Norway; and, at a convention of the repre- Kalmar, sentatives of the three Scandinavian kingdoms held 1397.
At Kalmar (1397), Margaret's great-nephew, Eric of Pomerania, was elected the common king, but the liberties of each of the three realms were expressly reserved and confirmed.
Sixteen days later the Articles of Kalmar, signed by John and Sigismund, regulated the future relations between the two countries when, in process of time, Sigismund should succeed his father as king of Sweden.
But now, when everything depended on a concentration of forces, Charles's imprudent assumption of the title of " King of the Lapps of Nordland," which people properly belonged to the Danish Crown, involved him in another war with Denmark, a war known in Scandinavian history as the war of Kalmar because the Swedish fortress of Kalmar was the chief theatre of hostilities.
Still worse, the war of Kalmar, prudently Peace of concluded by Charles's son, Gustavus Adolphus, Knared, in the second year of his reign, by the peace of Knared 1613.