Regular postal communication is maintained by the Russians between Kiakhta and Kalgan (close by Peking) across the desert of Gobi.
It is calculated that ioo,000 camels are used for the transport of tea only from Kalgan to Siberia, and that no less than 1,200,000 camels and 300,000 ox-carts are employed in the internal caravan trade.
The trade is chiefly concentrated at Urga, Ulyasutai and Kobdo in north-west Mongolia; Kalgan, Kuku-khoto, Kuku-erghi, Dolon-nur and Biru-khoto in southern and south-eastern Mongolia; and at Kerulen in the north-east.
One of each pair of officials is stationed at Kalgan, and the other at Jehol.
Valuable cargoes of tea are landed here for carriage overland, via Kalgan and Kiakhta, to Siberia.