KALAMAZOO, a city and the county-seat of Kalamazoo county, Michigan, U.S.A., on the W.
Bank of the Kalamazoo River, about 49 m.
It is served by the Michigan Central, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the Grand Rapids & Indiana, the Kalamazoo Lake Shore & Chicago, and the Chicago Kalamazoo & Saginaw railways, and by interurban electric lines.
The city has a public library, and is the seat of Kalamazoo college (Baptist), which grew out of the Kalamazoo literary institute (1833) and was chartered under its present name in 1855; the Michigan female seminary (Presbyterian), established in 1866; the Western State normal school (1904); Nazareth Academy (1897), for girls; Barbour Hall (1899), a school for boys; two private schools for the feeble-minded; and the Michigan asylum for the insane, opened in 1859.
Kalamazoo was settled in 1829, was known as Bronson (in honour of Titus Bronson, an early settler) until 1836, was incorporated as the village of Kalamazoo in 1838, and in 1884 became a city under a charter granted in the preceding year.
ALBION, a city of Calhoun county, Michigan, U.S.A., on the Kalamazoo river, 21 m.
BATTLE CREEK, a city of Calhoun county, Michigan, U.S.A., at the confluence of the Kalamazoo river with Battle Creek, about 48 m.
West of the divide and south of the depression, south-west Michigan is occupied by the valleys of the St Joseph, Kalamazoo and Grand rivers, by the gently rolling uplands that form the parting divides between them, and by sand dunes, which here and there rise to a height of from loo to zoo ft.
Most of the larger rivers of the state - the Muskegon, Grand, St Joseph, Manistee and Kalamazoo - are in the west portion of the lower peninsula.
Kalamazoo, Jackson, Washtenaw, Lenawee, Ingham, Bay and Muskegon are the leading celery-producing counties; the peppermint district is in the south-west corner of the state; and market gardening is an important industry both in the south-west and in the south-east counties.
The ten leading manufacturing centres are, in the order of the value of their products in 1904 Detroit, Grand Rapids, Kalamazoo, Battle Creek, Saginaw, Jackson, Lansing, Muskegon, Bay City and Port Huron, all in the south half of the lower peninsula.
The state supports the Michigan Asylum for the Insane (opened 1859), at Kalamazoo; the Eastern Michigan Asylum for the Insane (opened 1878), at Pontiac; the Northern Michigan Asylum for the Insane (opened 1885), at Traverse City; the Michigan Asylum for the Dangerous and Criminal Insane (established 1885), at Ionia; the Upper Peninsula Hospital for the Insane, at Newberry; a Psychopathic Hospital (established 1907), at Ann Arbor; a State Sanatorium (established 1905), at Howell; the Michigan State Prison (established 1839), at Jackson; the Michigan Reformatory (established 1887), at Ionia; the State House of Correction and Branch Prison (established 1885), at Marquette; the Industrial School for Boys, at Lansing; the Industrial Home for Girls (established 1879), near Adrian; the State Public School (opened 1874), at Coldwater, a temporary home for dependent children until homes in families can be found for them; the School for the Deaf (established 1854), at Flint; the School for the Blind, at Lansing; an Employment Institution for the Blind (established 1903), at Saginaw; the Home for the Feeble Minded and Epileptic (established 1893), at Lapeer; and the Michigan Soldiers' Home (established 1885), at Grand Rapids.
The state normal schools are: the Michigan State Normal College at Ypsilanti (organized in 1849); the Central Michigan Normal School at Mount Pleasant (established in 1895); the Northern State Normal School at Marquette (established in 1899); and the Western State Normal School at Kalamazoo (established in 1904).
Other important institutions of learning within the state but not maintained by it are: Albion College (Methodist Episcopal; opened in 1843), at Albion; Hillsdale College (Free Baptist, 1855), at Hillsdale; Kalamazoo College (Baptist, 1855), at Kalamazoo; Adrian College (controlled by the Methodist Protestant Church since 1867), at Adrian; Olivet College (Congregational, 1859), at Olivet; Hope College (Reformed, 1866), at Holland; Detroit College (Roman Catholic, 1877), at Detroit; Alma College (Presbyterian; incorporated 1886), at Alma; and some professional schools at Detroit (q.v.).