ARMSTRONG, was attorney-general in the cabinet of the Hawaiian king Kalakaua I.
Lunalilo, a grandson of Kamehameha I., was king for two years, and in 1874, backed by American influence, Kalakaua was elected his successor, in preference to Queen Emma, a member of the Anglican Church and the candidate of the pro-British party.
Kalakaua considered residents of European or American descent as alien invaders, and he aimed to restore largely the ancient system of personal government, under which he should have control of the public treasury.
To exalt his royal dignity, which was lowered, he thought, by his being only an elected king, Kalakaua caused himself to be crowned with imposing ceremonies on the ninth anniversary of his election (Feb.
Kalakaua was now no longer satisfied with being merely king of Hawaii, but aspired to what was termed the " Primacy of the Pacific."
The sovereigns of the monarchy, the president of the republic and the governors of the Territory up to 1910 were as follows: Sovereigns: Kamehameha I., 1795-1819; Kamehameha II., 1819-1824; Kaahumanu (regent), 1824-1832; Kamehameha III., 1832-1854; Kamehameha IV., 1855-1863; Kamehameha V., 1863-1872; Lunalilo, 1873-1874; Kalakaua, 1874-1891; Liliuokalani, 1891-1893.
Under the reign of Kalakaua (1874-1891) there was a strong reaction towards heathenism, but since the annexation of the islands by the United States of America the various churches of that land have taken up the task of evangelization and consolidation.