His indignation was aroused by the barbarities inflicted upon the Hottentots and Kaffirs (by a minority of the colonists), and he set himself to remedy their grievances; but his zeal was greater than his knowledge.
He was one of the rare instances among the Kaffirs of a leader endowed with intellectual gifts which placed him on a level with Europeans, and his life-work has left a permanent mark on South African history.
Exemption from the scope of these provisions may be granted by the governor-general and under such exemption a few Kaffirs are on the roll of electors.
The Kaffirs have their own organ, Ipipa lo Hlunga (the paper of grievances), issued at Maritzburg, and the Asiatics, Indian Opinion, a weekly paper started in 1903 and printed in English, Gujarati, Hindi and Tamil.
These Kaffirs appear to have been more given to agriculture and more peaceful than their neighbours in Kaffraria and Cape Colony.
This feeling was, however, changed by what Sir George (and many of the Dutch in Natal also) thought a wilful and unjustifiable attack (December 1840) on a tribe of Kaffirs on the southern, or Cape Colony, frontier by a commando under Andries Pretorius, which set out, nominally, to recover stolen cattle.
The new administration found it hard to please the Dutch farmers, who among other grievances resented what they considered the undue favour shown to the Kaffirs, whose numbers had been greatly augmented by the flight of refugees from Panda.
Early in the year a farmer who had insisted that the Kaffirs on his farm should pay the poll-tax was murdered, and on the 8th of February some forty natives in the Richmond district forcibly resisted the collection of the tax and killed a subinspector of police and a trooper at Byrnetown.
The commission declared that the chasm between the native and white races had been broadening for years and that the efforts of the administration - especially since the grant of responsible government - to reconcile the Kaffirs to the changed conditions of rule and policy and to convert them into an element of strength had been ineffective.
For the native inhabitants, besides the works quoted under Kaffirs, valuable information will be found in Native Customs, H.C. 292 (1881), the Report of the Native Affairs' Commission, 1906-1907, Cd.
Next, numerically, to the Basuto and Bechuana peoples are the tribes known collectively as Transvaal Kaffirs, of whom there were 159,860 enumerated at the 1904 census.
Altogether the Transvaal Kaffirs form 50% of the inhabitants of Waterberg district, 30% of Zoutpansberg district and 18% of Middelburg district.
Besides the tribes whose home is in the Transvaal considerable numbers of natives, chiefly members of east coast tribes, Cape Kaffirs and Zulus, go to the Witwatersrand to work in the gold and other mines.
They also ascertained that a trade between the Kaffirs and the Portuguese at Delagoa Bay already existed.
The Kaffirs, who numbered in 1904 34 8 3, live in a separate location.
Among the Ama-Xosa section of Kaffirs they appear to have been quite unknown.
As far as possible Cetywayo he revived the military methods of his uncle Chaka, king, and even succeeded in equipping his regiments with firearms. It is believed that he instigated the Kaffirs in the Transkei to revolt, and he aided Sikukuni in his struggle with the Transvaal.
To enter and remain in the district, Kaffirs require a monthly pass for which the employer pays 2s.
Nearly 33% of the population, 127,637 persons, were returned officially at the census of 1904 as of " no religion," under which head are classed the natives who retain their primitive forms of belief, for which see Kaffirs, Bechuanas, &c.
Vanderkemp, an agent of the London Missionary Society, founded a mission to the Kaffirs east of Cape Town, and Robert Moffat (1818) went to the Bechuanas.
Pop. (1904), 31,119, of whom 15,087 were whites, 10,752 Kaffirs, and 5280 Indians.
Sir Bartle Frere, who became high commissioner of South Africa in March 1877, found evidence which convinced him that the Kaffir revolt of that year on the eastern border of Cape Colony was part of a design or desire "for a general and simultaneous rising of Kaffirdom against white civilization"; and the Kaffirs undoubtedly looked to Cetywayo and the Zulus as the most redoubtable of their champions.
The Bantus or Kaffirs (q.v.), as they were universally called, then held all the coast-lands between Delagoa Bay and the Great Fish River, and for many years they were strong enough to bar the further progress eastward of the white races.
The peace was broken in 1789 by an invasion of the colonial territory by the Kaffirs, and this conflict proved to be but the first of a series of Kaffir wars which lasted for a century.
In 1811 it was deemed necessary to expel the Kaffirs from the Zuurveld, and the British headquarters in that campaign became the site of Graham's Town.
In1817-1819the Kaffirs returned and laid waste a large area.
Others remained within Cape Colony, while several were stationed among the Kaffirs along the colonial border.
Moshesh ruled over a region largely mountainous and over a people numerous and virile; Pondoland was somewhat remote and was densely inhabited by warlike Kaffirs; the two Griqua states were, however, missionary creations; they were thinly inhabited and occupied open plains easy of access - hence their ultimate collapse.
The Kaffirs wrought great havoc, and Sir Benjamin D'Urban, the governor, in order to secure peace, extended the boundary of the colony to the Kei river.
The Kaffirs had suffered much injustice, especially from the commando-reprisal system, but they had also committed many injustices, and for the disturbed state of the border the vacillating policy of the Cape government was largely to blame.
Sir Benjamin's policy - which had the cordial approval both of the Dutch and the British colonists - was one of close settlement by whites in certain districts and military control of the Kaffirs in other regions, and it would have done much to ensure peace.
Lord Glenelg, secretary for the colonies in Lord Melbourne's second administration, held that the Kaffirs were in the right in the quarrel, and he compelled D'Urban to abandon the conquered territory, a mistaken decision adopted largely on the advice of Dr Philip and his supporters.
Intended by its authors to protect the native tribes from aggression on the part of white men and to check the exploration by Europeans of the lands of the Kaffirs, Bechuanas, &c., the act led in fact to the assertion of British authority in regions beyond the Cape frontier.
The continual feuds with the Kaffirs, and also the continual desire to trek into new countries, all tended to keep back farming, and the country in the years 1867 to 1870 was in a generally very depressed condition.
1877) in which the British parliament passed the act, foreshadowed by the secretary of state, " for the union under one government of such of the South African colonies and states as may agree thereto, " another war with the Kaffirs broke out.
This depression was in considerable measure due to, and was largely aggravated by, the comparative inactivity of the Rand mines, and that inactivity was due in turn to the insufficiency of native labour - Kaffirs being employed to do all the unskilled work on the mines.
The economic situation had in the meantime considerably altered, and the Transvaal was able to bring pressure upon Portugal to permit the recruiting of many thousands more Kaffirs from Mozambique province.
Typified in the declaration of " equal rights to all civilized men " - or that of the opposite system (as warmly advocated by the Natal delegates as by those from the exBoer republics), which would keep the native races in permanent inferiority, cannot here be discussed; it may be stated, however, that the admittance of Kaffirs to the franchise in the Cape had not been attended with the evil consequences feared.
Stature is by no means a general criterion of race, and it would not, for instance, be difficult to choose groups of Englishmen, Kaffirs, and North American Indians, whose mean height should hardly differ.
Lastly, there is usually to be discerned amongst such lower races a belief in unseen powers pervading the universe, this belief shaping itself into an animistic or spiritualistic theology, mostly resulting in some kind of worship. If, again, high savage or low barbaric types be selected, as among the North American Indians, Polynesians, and Kaffirs of South Africa, the same elements of culture appear, but at a more advanced stage, namely, a more full and accurate language, more knowledge of the laws of nature, more serviceable implements, more perfect industrial processes, more definite and fixed social order and frame of government, more systematic and philosophic schemes of religion and a more elaborate and ceremonial worship. At intervals new arts and ideas appear, such as agriculture and pasturage, the manufacture of pottery, the use of metal implements and the device of record and communication by picture writing.
Of the coloured races the Hottentots and Bushmen were estimated at 82,000, whilst the Kaffirs formed about S o% of the population.
Of the Hottentots 77%, of the Fingoes 50%, of the mixed races 89%, and of the Kaffirs and Bechuanas 26% were returned as Christians.
In 1 795 the heavily taxed burghers of the frontier districts, who were afforded no protection against the Kaffirs, expelled the officials of the East India Company, and set up independent governments at Swellendam and Graaff Reinet.
At the time of the cession to Great Britain the first of several wars with the Kaffirs had been fought.
(The numerous minor conflicts which since 1789 had taken place between the colonists and the Kaffirs - the latter sometimes aided by Hottentot allies - are not reckoned in the usual enumeration of the Kaffir wars.) The Kaffirs, who had crossed the colonial frontier, had been expelled from the district between the Sunday and Great Fish rivers known as the Zuurveld, which became a sort of neutral ground.
For some time previous to 1811 the Kaffirs, however, had taken possession of the neutral ground and committed depredations on the colonists.
In order to expel them from the Zuurveld, Colonel John Graham took the field with a mixed force in December 1811, and in the end the Kaffirs were driven beyond the Fish river.
In 1817 further trouble arose with the Kaffirs, the immediate cause of quarrel being an attempt by the colonial authorities to enforce the restitution of some stolen cattle.
Routed in 1818 the Kaffirs rallied, and in the early part of 1819 poured into the colony in vast hordes.
The then governor, Lord Charles Somerset, whose treaty arrangements with the Kaffir chiefs had proved unfortunate, desired to erect a barrier against the Kaffirs by settling white colonists in the border district.
On the eastern border further trouble arose with the Kaffirs, towards whom the policy of the Cape government was marked by much vacillation.
Territory was invaded, and after nine months' fighting the Kaffirs were completely subdued, and a new treaty of peace concluded (on the 17th of September).
" The Kaffirs " in the opinion of Lord Glenelg, " had an ample justification for war; they had to resent, and endeavoured justly, though impotently, to avenge a series of encroachments " (despatch of the 26th of December 1835).
This attitude towards the Kaffirs was one of the many reasons given by the Trek Boers for leaving Cape Colony.
- Another war with the Kaffirs broke out in 1846 and was known as the War of the Axe, from the murder of a Hottentot, to whom an old Kaffir thief was manacled, while being conveyed to Graham's Town for trial for stealing an axe.
The escort was attacked by a party of Kaffirs and the Hottentot killed.
After some reverses the Kaffirs were signally defeated on the 7th of June by General Somerset on the Gwangu, a few miles from Fort Peddie.
Still the war went on, till at length Sandili, the chief of the Gaikas, surrendered, followed gradually by the other chiefs; and by the beginning of 1848 the Kaffirs were again subdued, after twenty-one months' fighting.
For a time the Kaffirs accepted quietly the new order of things.