- Another war with the Kaffirs broke out in 1846 and was known as the War of the Axe, from the murder of a Hottentot, to whom an old Kaffir thief was manacled, while being conveyed to Graham's Town for trial for stealing an axe.
Soon transferred to the 12th Lancers, he saw active service with that regiment in the Kaffir war of 1852-53.
When work restarted after the war, the mine owners offered the Kaffir workmen little more than half the wages paid in 1898; but this effort at economy was abandoned, and the old rates of pay were restored in January 1903.
The Kaffir chief who had accompanied him to England joined the enemy; and many of his converts showed that his efforts on their behalf had effected no change in their character.
The chief exports are wheat, mealies, Kaffir corn, wool, mohair, horses and cattle.
A strong beer, brewed from Kaffir corn, is a favourite drink.
This act provided for the disarmament of natives, and had The already been put in force successfully among some "Sun" of the Kaffir tribes on the Cape eastern frontier.
At the census of 1904 the population of the province, including Zululand, was 1,108,754.2 Of this total 8.8%, or 97,109, were Europeans, 9%, or 100,918, Asiatics and the rest natives of South Africa, mainly of Zulu-Kaffir stock.
Besides maize the crops cultivated by the natives are Kaffir corn or amabele (Sorghum caffrorum)- used in the manufacture of utyuala, native beer - imfi (Sorghum saccharatum), tobacco, pumpkins and sweet potatoes.
The first emigrant Boers to enter the country were led by Pieter Retief (c. 1780-1838), a man of Huguenot descent and of marked ability, who had formerly lived on the eastern frontier of Cape Colony and had suffered severely in the Kaffir wars.
Napier, therefore, on the 2nd of December 1841, issued a proclamation in which he stated that in consequence of the emigrant farmers refusing to be treated as British subjects and of their attitude towards the Kaffir tribes he intended resuming military occupation of Port Natal.
Some 25% more women than men were so employed, this preponderance being due to the large number of Kaffir women and the few native men who work in the mealie fields.
The chief method employed for their destruction is spraying the swarms with arsenic. The districts with the greatest area under cultivation are Heidelberg, Witwatersrand, Pretoria, Standerton and Krugersdorp. The chief crops grown for grain are wheat, maize (mealie) and kaffir corn, but the harvest is inadequate to meet local demands.
At the same time successful efforts were made by the ministry to increase the supply of Kaffir labour for the mines.
In Natal, indeed, where the first independent census was taken in 1891, the Kaffir population was not on that occasion enumerated at all.
In this term are included, however, Zulu-Kaffir immigrants.
The chief crop is mealies, the staple food of the natives; wheat, oathay, Kaffir corn and oats coming next.
The Bechuana were entirely unaffected by the Kaffir rebellion in Natal.
The Bechuanas and all Kaffir tribes believe that death, even at an advanced age, if not from hunger or violence, is due to witchcraft, and blood is required to expiate or avenge it.
Sir Bartle Frere, who became high commissioner of South Africa in March 1877, found evidence which convinced him that the Kaffir revolt of that year on the eastern border of Cape Colony was part of a design or desire "for a general and simultaneous rising of Kaffirdom against white civilization"; and the Kaffirs undoubtedly looked to Cetywayo and the Zulus as the most redoubtable of their champions.
The cereal most grown is maize (known in South Africa as mealies); kaffir corn, wheat, barley and oats are also largely cultivated.
A spear used by the Kaffir tribes; a word adopted from the Portuguese, but of Berber origin.
The peace was broken in 1789 by an invasion of the colonial territory by the Kaffirs, and this conflict proved to be but the first of a series of Kaffir wars which lasted for a century.
The year which witnessed the emancipation of the slaves and the creation of the first treaty state also saw the beginning of another disastrous Kaffir war.
2 Then came the Kaffir War of 1834-1835, the reversal by the home government of the statesmanlike settlement of Sir Benjamin D'Urban, and the refusal of any compensation to the sufferers from the war, whose losses amounted to some £500,000.
Sir Harry had, in the previous December, extended the northern frontier of Cape Colony to the Orange, and had reoccupied the territory on the Kaffir border which D'Urban had been forced to abandon.'
2 Despatch of Earl Grey, dated October 21st, 1851, printed in Correspondence Relative to the State of the Kaffir Tribes (C. Feb.
The Basuto and Kaffir tribes were giving trouble, and the 40,000 trained Zulu warriors under Cetywayo threatened the peace both of Natal and the Transvaal.
The Kaffir War of 1878 was followed by war with the Zulus.
Thus in the Cape the Kaffir would have a right to the franchise, but not in the other divisions of the country.
At the Cape it was formerly common, and occasionally committed great havoc among the cattle, while it did not hesitate to enter the Kaffir dwellings at night and carry off children sleeping by their mothers.
Judging, then, by the extirpation and adoption of languages within the range of history, it is obvious that to classify mankind into races, Aryan, Semitic, Turanian, Polynesian, Kaffir, &c., on the mere evidence of language, is intrinsically unsound.
The history of the Cape the Kei plays an important part as long marking the boundary between the colony and the independent Kaffir tribes.
There are few indigenous fruits; the kei apple is the fruit of a small tree or shrub found in Kaffraria and the eastern districts, where also the wild and Kaffir plums are common; hard pears, gourds, water melons and species of almond, chestnut and lemon are also native.
Of Kaffir tribes the most important living north of the Orange river are the Bechuanas, whilst in the eastern province and Kaffraria live the Fingoes, Tembus and Pondos.
The Amaxosa are the principal Kaffir tribe in Cape Colony proper.
The Kaffir and Bechuana tribes numbered 1,114,067 individuals, besides 310,720 Fingoes separately classified, while 279,662 persons were described as of mixed race.
The principal cereal crops are wheat, with a yield of 1,701,000 bushels in 1904, oats, barley, rye, mealies (Indian corn) and Kaffir corn (a kind of millet).
Mealies (extensively used as food for cattle and horses) are very largely grown by the coloured population and Kaffir corn almost exclusively so.
In 1780, however, the Dutch, to avoid collision with the warlike Kaffir tribes advancing south and west from east central Africa, agreed with them to make the Great Fish river the common boundary.
(The numerous minor conflicts which since 1789 had taken place between the colonists and the Kaffirs - the latter sometimes aided by Hottentot allies - are not reckoned in the usual enumeration of the Kaffir wars.) The Kaffirs, who had crossed the colonial frontier, had been expelled from the district between the Sunday and Great Fish rivers known as the Zuurveld, which became a sort of neutral ground.
The then governor, Lord Charles Somerset, whose treaty arrangements with the Kaffir chiefs had proved unfortunate, desired to erect a barrier against the Kaffirs by settling white colonists in the border district.
This set the whole of the Kaffir tribes in a blaze.
Considerable trouble was caused by the emigrant Boers on either side of the Orange river, where the new corners, the Basutos and other Kaffir tribes, Bushmen and Griquas contended for mastery.
The Kaffir War of 1850-1853.
The greater part of the Kaffir police deserted, many of them carrying off their arms and accoutrements.
Mhlakza repeated the message to his chief, Sarili, one of the most powerful Kaffir rulers.
The transfer was marked by the removal of the prohibition of the sale of alcoholic liquors to the natives, and the free trade in intoxicants which followed had most deplorable results among the Kaffir tribes.
In 1876, Fingoland, the Idutywa reserve, and Noman's-land, tracts of country on the Kaffir frontier, were annexed by Great Britain, on the understanding that the Cape government should provide for their government.
Frere had no sooner taken office as high commissioner than he found himself confronted with serious native troubles in Zululand and on the Kaffir frontier of Cape Colony.
It was in this war that the famous Kaffir chief, Sandili, lost his life.
A wave of feeling spread amongst the different Kaffir tribes on the colonial frontier, and after the Gaika-Galeka War there followed in 1879 a rising in Basutoland under Moirosi, whose cattle-raiding had for some time!past caused considerable trouble.
The Bondsmen were more lavish than their opponents in their promises to the natives and even invited a Kaffir journalist (who declined) to stand for a seat in the Assembly.
When however at the close of the Kaffir War of 1834-35 D'Urban annexed the country up to the Kei River, Philip's hostility was aroused.
He came to England in 1836, in company with a Kaffir convert and a Hottentot convert, and aroused public opinion against the Cape government.
For a time his plan of buffer states was carried out, but in 1846 another Kaffir rising convinced him of the futility of his schemes.
As early as 1657 criminals were banished to the island by the Dutch authorities at Cape Town; it has also served as the place of detention of several noted Kaffir chiefs.
By proclamation, on the 17th of December, he extended the frontier of the colony northward to the Orange river and eastward to the Keiskamma river, and on the 23rd, at a meeting of the Kaffir chiefs, announced the annexation of the country between the Keiskamma and the Kei rivers to the British crown, thus reabsorbing the territory abandoned by order of Lord Glenelg.
The British commanders were hampered throughout by the insufficiency of their forces, and it was not till March 1853 that this most sanguinary of Kaffir wars was brought to a conclusion, after a loss of many hundred British soldiers.
They lived, practically, as Kaffir chiefs, trading with Chaka and gathering round them many refugees from that monarch's tyranny.
From 1853 the Kaffir tribes on the east gave little trouble to the colony.