2 If certain clans moved direct from Kadesh into Judah, it is improbable that others made the lengthy detour from Kadesh by the Gulf of Akabah, but this may well be an attempt to fuse the traditions of two distinct migrations.
Kadesh (holy) was 1 Exod.
Amid a great variety of motives the prominence of Kadesh in south Palestine is to be recognized, but it is uncertain what clans or tribes were at Kadesh, and it is possible that traditions, originally confined to those with whom the new conception of Yahweh is connected, were subsequently adopted by others who came to regard themselves as the worshippers of the only true Yahweh.
It was at the holy well of Kadesh, in the sacred mounts of Sinai and Horeb, and in the field of Edom that the 1 Cf.
It shows a strong nationalist feeling which is not restricted to Judah alone, but comprises a greater Israel from Kadesh in Naphtali in the north to Hebron in the south, and even extends beyond the Jordan.
It is also recognized by many scholars that in the present account of the exodus there are indications of the original prominence of traditions of Kadesh, and also of a journey northwards in which Caleb, Kenites and others took part (§ 5).
I.), the evidence for the movement - a conquest north of Kadesh, almost at the gate of the promised land - explicitly mentions Israel; and against the latter the evidence again shows that this representation has been deliberately subordinated to the entrance of Israel from beyond the Jordan.'
From a number of points of evidence there appears to have been a group of traditions of a movement from the south (probably Kadesh, Num.
Syria up to and beyond the Euphrates is called more precisely Sahi (or Zahi), and is regarded as consisting of the following parts: (r) Rutenu, practically the same as Palestine (occasionally Palestine with Coelesyria is called Upper Rutenu, as distinguished from Lower Rutenu extending to the Euphrates); (2) the land of the Kheta (sometimes reckoned as belonging to Rutenu with Kadesh on the Orontes as its capital in the Ramesside period; (3) Naharina, the land on both sides of the Euphrates (extending, strictly speaking, beyond the Syrian limits).
Some of these names can be readily identified, such as Aleppo, Kadesh, Sidon, and the like, as well as many in Palestine.
It was centred on the upper Orontes (Kadesh) and had comparatively free access to Palestine and the Egyptian border.
42 seq.), probably between Kadesh and Hormah (cp. Gen.
64, " Tahtim-hodshi," based on the Septuagint version -H y XETTElµ KaSi i S be accepted, we hear of them at Kadesh on Orontes; and some minor Hittite cities are mentioned, e.g.
Syria, not apparently at Kadesh, but at Carchemish, though they had not been in possession of the latter place long (not in the epoch of Tethmosis I.'s Syrian campaign).
Forced back by Seti, the Kheta returned and were found holding Kadesh by Rameses II., who, in his fifth year, there fought against them and a large body of allies, drawn probably in part from beyond Taurus, the battle which occasioned the monumental poem of Pentaur.
3 He announced his discoveries in 1880, and proclaimed the fact that a great Hittite empire, extending from Kadesh to Smyrna, had risen from the dead.
Fought the battle of Kadesh with Rameses II., on at least equal terms. Both now and previously the diplomatic correspondence of the Hatti monarchs shows that they treated on terms of practical equality with both the Babylonian and the Egyptian courts; and that they waged constant wars in Syria, mainly with the Amorite tribes.
It is probable that Yahweh was at one time worshipped by various tribes south of Palestine, and that several places in that wide territory (Horeb, Sinai, Kadesh, &c.) were sacred to him; the oldest and most famous of these, the mountain of God, seems to have lain in Arabia, east of the Red Sea.
I The whole structure of Hebrew society at the time of the conquest was almost precisely that of a federation of Arab tribes, and thereligious ordinances are scarcely distinguishable from those of Arabia, save only that the great deliverance of the Exodus and the period when Moses, sitting in judgment at the sanctuary of Kadesh, had for a whole generation impressed the sovereignty of Jehovah on all the tribes, had created an idea of unity between the scattered settlements in Canaan such as the Arabs before Mahomet never had.
Further, internal peculiarities associating events now at Sinai-Horeb with those at Kadesh support the view that Kadesh was their true scene, and it is to be noticed that in Ex.
8 sqq.), and its sanctuary of Kadesh or En Mishpat ("well of judgment," Gen.
17-19), since on reaching Kadesh the Israelites would be within.
The forty years of wandering in the wilderness is characteristic of the Deuteronomic and post-exilic narratives; in the earlier sources the fruitful oasis of Kadesh is the centre, and even after the tradition of a detour to Sinai-Horeb was developed, only a brief period is spent at the holy mountain.
17-19 forbids the compromise which would place Sinai-Horeb in the neighbourhood of Kadesh (A.
In the spelling Mar-tu, the name is as old as the first Babylonian dynasty, but from the 15th century B.C. and downwards its syllabic equivalent Amurru is applied primarily to the land extending northwards of Palestine as far as Kadesh on the Orontes.
The Israelites at Kadesh, almost at the gate of the promised land, incurred the wrath of Yahweh, and, deterred by a defeat at Hormah from pursuing their journey northwards, were obliged to choose another route (Num.
19 seq.); consequently a great detour was made from Kadesh round by the south of Edom (Num.
Even seems to assume that the journey was made from Kadesh across the northern end of Edom.
The revolt, headed Tethrno~1s by the city of Kadesh on the Orontes, embraced the iii.
Kadesh fell in the sixth campaign.
Reduced the whole of northern Syria, and by the fame of his victories induced the king of Egypt to send him presents, yet he did not venture to attack Kadesh and Damascus, so that this kingdom acted as a "buffer" between the king of Assyria and the rising kingdom of Saul.
Itakkama writes thus to the Pharaoh, 5 " Behold, Namyawaza has surrendered all the cities of the king, my lord, to the SA-GAS in the land of Kadesh and in Ubi.
Elsewhere, in the records of the Exodus, there are traces of specific traditions associated with Kadesh, Kenites, Caleb and Jeralimeel, and with a movement into Judah, all originally independent of their present context.
21), and (b) in the hints of an "exodus" from the district of Kadesh northwards.
76, as the place where was situated the town of Kadesh; and in i Kings ix.
HOMS, or Hums (anc. Emesa or Emessa, near the Hittite Kadesh), a town of Syria, on the right bank of the Orontes, and capital of a sanjak in the vilayet of Syria (Damascus).
Invading armies from the south have often been opposed near Homs, from the time of Rameses II., who had to fight the battle of Kadesh, to that of Ibrahim Pasha, who broke the first line of Ottoman defence in 1831 by his victory there.
Keleb, " dog"), in the Bible, one of the spies sent by Moses from Kadesh in South Palestine to spy out the land of Canaan.
Elsewhere (b) Caleb the Kenizzite reminds Joshua of the promise at Kadesh; he asks that he may have the "mountain whereof Yahweh spake," and hopes to drive out the giants from its midst.
Subsequently Jethro came to Moses (probably at Kadesh), a great sacrificial feast was held, and the priest instructed Moses in legislative procedure; Exod.
Both Kadesh and Mt.