The principal industries are steam flour-milling, distilling, and the manufacture of machinery, railway plant, carriages, cutlery, gold and silver wares, chemicals, bricks, jute, and the usual articles produced in large towns for home consumption.
The industries include the spinning of jute, flax, hemp and cotton, iron-founding, brewing, and the manufacture of machinery, fishing-nets, sailcloth, sacks, casks, and soap. There are also saw-and flour-mills, petroleum refineries and oil-works.
Linen, flax, jute and wool are also spun and woven.
In 1890 the operatives in the jute and hemp industry numbered 39,885, and in 1901 they were (including workers in canvas, sacking, sailcloth, rope, twine, mats, cocoa fibre) 46,550.
The cultivation of jute is confined to a comparatively restricted area, more than three-fourths of the total acreage being in eastern Bengal and Assam, while nearly the whole of the remaining fourth is in Bengal.
Ramie fibre and jute are available for coarse cloth; cotton weaving is almost non-existent.
Yarns, textile goods and weaving industries generally have not attained any great dimensions, but there are large jute-spinning mills and factories for cotton-wool and cotton driving - belts.
Besides rice, the products of the countryinclude tea, tobacco, cotton, cinnamon, precious woods and rubber; coffee, pepper, sugar-canes and jute are cultivated to a minor extent.
It has a Protestant and a Roman Catholic church, and is the seat of considerable industries; notably wool-combing, weaving, jute-spinning and the manufacture of linoleum.
The vats are fitted with filters made of coco-nut matting and jute cloth supported on wooden frames.
Other industries are engineering, shipbuilding and brewing, and there are cloth, jute, hat, wood-pulp and paper factories.
Philadelphia, the Atlantic port, exports chiefly petroleum, coal, grain and flour, and imports chiefly iron ore, sugar, drugs and chemicals, manufactured iron, hemp, jute and flax.
The greatest activity is shown in the cotton industry, which flourishes especially in the Twente district of Overysel, where jute is also worked into sacks.
Other notable branches of manufacturing industry, besides those already named, are flour-mills, jute, hosiery, lace, paper, cement, hats, haberdashery, machinery, tobacco, soap and candle factories, iron and steel works, distilleries, breweries, potteries, vinegar, chocolate, varnish, furniture, clothing and brickworks.
The jute manufacture, the principal centres of which are Berlin, Bonn, Brunswick and Hamburg, has of late attained considerable dimensions.
In addition to this, various industries were set on foot for the benefit of those who were not capable of field work, such as mat and rope making, and jute and cotton weaving.
2.7.1 (a) Wool and Worsted 2.7.2 (b) Flax, Hemp and Jute 2.7.3 (c) Cotton 2.7.4 (d) Silk and other Textiles 2.7.5 (e) Whisky and Beer 2.7.6 (f) Miscellaneous
The allied industry of jute is the staple industry of Dundee.
Next to cotton, jute is the most important and prosperous of Indian manufactures.
About half the total crop is exported, and the remainder used in the jute mills centred round Calcutta, which supply cloth and bags for the grain export trade.
The number of jute mills in 1904 was 38, employing 124,000 hands, and since then the number has tended constantly upwards.
The export of jute in1905-1906was 14,480,000 cwt.
The chief exports are raw cotton, cotton goods and yarn, rice, wheat, oil-seeds, raw jute and jute-manufactures, hides and skins, tea, opium and lac. In1905-1906there was great activity in both the cotton and jute industries.
In Bombay new cotton mills were erected, and old ones extended, high-speed machinery was widely introduced, and 12,000 new looms were set up. Similarly the jute trade far surpassed all records.
Valuable staples of exports, such as cotton, jute, oil-seeds classes and wheat.
Shoes are called juta, juti or jute by Mahommedans, and jore or zore by Hindus.
There are also woollen and jute mills, iron and brass foundries, lac factories and oil-mills.
The exports are: - Cereals, cotton, cotton seed, dried fruits, drugs, fruit, gall nuts, gum tragacanth, liquorice root, maize, nuts, olive oil, opium, rice, sesame, sponges, storax, timber, tobacco, valonia, walnut wood, wine, yellow berries, carpets, cotton yarn, cocoons, hides, leather, mohair, silk, silk stuffs, rugs, wax, wool, leeches, live stock, minerals, &c. The imports are: - Coffee, cotton cloths, cotton goods, crockery, drysalteries, fezzes, glass-ware, haberdashery, hardware, henna, ironware, jute, linen goods, manufactured goods, matches, petroleum, salt, sugar, woollen goods, yarns, &c.
The town is entirely modern, and owes its progress to the water-power supplied by the Ericht for linen and jute factories.
Roxburgh sent to the directors of the East India Company a bale of the fibre which he described as "the jute of the natives."
The two species cultivated for jute fibre are in all respects very similar to each other, except in their fructification and the relatively greater size attained by C. capsularis.
JUTE, a vegetable fibre now occupying a position in the manufacturing scale inferior only to cotton and flax.
The term jute appears to have been first used in 1746, when the captain of the "Wake" noted in his log that he had sent on shore "60 bales of gunney with all the jute rope" (New Eng.
The fibre known as China jute or Tien-tsin jute is the product of another plant, Abutilon Avicennae, a member of the Mallow family.
- Attempts have been made to grow the jute plant in America, Egypt, Africa and other places, but up to the present the fibre has proved much inferior to that obtained from plants grown in India.
"Jute seed experiments are being continued and the report for 1906 has been issued.
When the commerce of New England was interrupted as a consequence of the Napoleonic wars, the abundance of water power afforded by the rivers encouraged manufacturing, and the region rapidly acquired prominence in this industry, especially in the manufacture of textiles, of boots and shoes, and of paper and wood pulp; in 1905 the value of the textile products of New England (excluding flax, hemp and jute) alone was $522,821,440 (more than 45% of that of the entire country), the value of boots and shoes was $181,023,946 (more than 55% of the total for the entire country), the value of paper and wood pulp was $49,813,133 (more than one-quarter of that of the entire country), and the value of all factory products amounted to $2,025,998,437 (nearly one-seventh of the total for the entire country).
On the left bank of the Ericht, opposite Blairgowrie, with which it is connected by a four-arched bridge, stands the town and police burgh of Rattray (pop. 2019), where there are flax and jute mills.
Next to agriculture, weaving is the most important industry in the country, the cotton-mills of Bombay and the jute mills of Bengal having increased greatly of recent years.
In the textile industry for flax and hemp there were, in 1905, 276,000 fine spindles, 22,300 hand-looms and 17,600 power-looms in operation, and, in 1905, linen and jute materials were exported of an estimated value of over 2,000,000.
The other leading industries include manufactures of gauge-glasses, ink, muslins, India shawls, jute goods, woollens and winceys, floorcloth, and boots and shoes.
Jute is manufactured at Bielefeld and cotton goods in the W.