In 1890 the operatives in the jute and hemp industry numbered 39,885, and in 1901 they were (including workers in canvas, sacking, sailcloth, rope, twine, mats, cocoa fibre) 46,550.
Linen, flax, jute and wool are also spun and woven.
The cultivation of jute is confined to a comparatively restricted area, more than three-fourths of the total acreage being in eastern Bengal and Assam, while nearly the whole of the remaining fourth is in Bengal.
The allied industry of jute is the staple industry of Dundee.
Shoes are called juta, juti or jute by Mahommedans, and jore or zore by Hindus.
It is a centre of the jute trade.
Camphor, sugar, tea, indigo, ground peanuts, jute, hemp, oil and rattans are all articles of export.
The industries include the spinning of jute, flax, hemp and cotton, iron-founding, brewing, and the manufacture of machinery, fishing-nets, sailcloth, sacks, casks, and soap. There are also saw-and flour-mills, petroleum refineries and oil-works.
Philadelphia, the Atlantic port, exports chiefly petroleum, coal, grain and flour, and imports chiefly iron ore, sugar, drugs and chemicals, manufactured iron, hemp, jute and flax.
The principal industries are steam flour-milling, distilling, and the manufacture of machinery, railway plant, carriages, cutlery, gold and silver wares, chemicals, bricks, jute, and the usual articles produced in large towns for home consumption.
About half the total crop is exported, and the remainder used in the jute mills centred round Calcutta, which supply cloth and bags for the grain export trade.
The number of jute mills in 1904 was 38, employing 124,000 hands, and since then the number has tended constantly upwards.
The chief exports are raw cotton, cotton goods and yarn, rice, wheat, oil-seeds, raw jute and jute-manufactures, hides and skins, tea, opium and lac. In1905-1906there was great activity in both the cotton and jute industries.
In Bombay new cotton mills were erected, and old ones extended, high-speed machinery was widely introduced, and 12,000 new looms were set up. Similarly the jute trade far surpassed all records.
Valuable staples of exports, such as cotton, jute, oil-seeds classes and wheat.
There are also woollen and jute mills, iron and brass foundries, lac factories and oil-mills.
The exports are: - Cereals, cotton, cotton seed, dried fruits, drugs, fruit, gall nuts, gum tragacanth, liquorice root, maize, nuts, olive oil, opium, rice, sesame, sponges, storax, timber, tobacco, valonia, walnut wood, wine, yellow berries, carpets, cotton yarn, cocoons, hides, leather, mohair, silk, silk stuffs, rugs, wax, wool, leeches, live stock, minerals, &c. The imports are: - Coffee, cotton cloths, cotton goods, crockery, drysalteries, fezzes, glass-ware, haberdashery, hardware, henna, ironware, jute, linen goods, manufactured goods, matches, petroleum, salt, sugar, woollen goods, yarns, &c.
The town is entirely modern, and owes its progress to the water-power supplied by the Ericht for linen and jute factories.
Roxburgh sent to the directors of the East India Company a bale of the fibre which he described as "the jute of the natives."
Pepper is grown in considerable quantities in the districts of Ha-Tien and Bien-Hoa, and sugarcanes, coffee, cotton, tobacco and jute are also produced.
Flax, Hemp, Jute, &c.The preparation and spinning of these materials and the manufacture of nets and rope, together with the weaving of linen and other fabrics, give occupation to 112,000 persons chiefly in the departments of Nord (Lille, Armentires, Dunkirk), Somme (Amiens) and Maine-et-Loire (Angers, Cholet).
The core is served with a thick coating of wet jute, yarn or hemp (h), forming a soft bed for the sheath, and, to secure immunity from the ravages of submarine boring animals, e.g.
Should these tests prove satisfactory the core is served with jute yarn, coiled in water-tight tanks, and surrounded with salt water.
The jute industry is concentrated in a few large factories, which from 1887 onwards have more than supplied the home market, and have begun considerably to export.
Ramie fibre and jute are available for coarse cloth; cotton weaving is almost non-existent.
Yarns, textile goods and weaving industries generally have not attained any great dimensions, but there are large jute-spinning mills and factories for cotton-wool and cotton driving - belts.
An enormous development of agricultural resources has taken place within the Brahmaputra basin of late years, chiefly in the direction of tea cultivation, as well as in the production of jute and silk.
This supersedes artificial irrigation, and the plains so watered yield abundantly in rice, jute and mustard.
Besides wool, leading imports are jute, cotton, flax, timber, petroleum, coal, pitch, wine, cereals, oil-seeds and oil-cake, nitrate of soda and other chemical products, and metals.
Besides rice, the products of the countryinclude tea, tobacco, cotton, cinnamon, precious woods and rubber; coffee, pepper, sugar-canes and jute are cultivated to a minor extent.
It has a Protestant and a Roman Catholic church, and is the seat of considerable industries; notably wool-combing, weaving, jute-spinning and the manufacture of linoleum.
The vats are fitted with filters made of coco-nut matting and jute cloth supported on wooden frames.
The industries embrace engine-building, the manufacture of railway carriages a11d plant, scientific instruments, porcelain, tobacco and cigars, lithography, jute-spinning, iron-founding, brewing and gardening.
The industries comprise the manufacture of cloth, industrial machines, sugar-refining, jute fabrics and brewing.
Jute is manufactured at Bielefeld and cotton goods in the W.
Other industries are engineering, shipbuilding and brewing, and there are cloth, jute, hat, wood-pulp and paper factories.
Its principal industries are jute spinning and weaving, and the manufacture of porcelain, flags, machinery and beer, and it has some trade in wine.
The other leading industries include manufactures of gauge-glasses, ink, muslins, India shawls, jute goods, woollens and winceys, floorcloth, and boots and shoes.
The greatest activity is shown in the cotton industry, which flourishes especially in the Twente district of Overysel, where jute is also worked into sacks.
Next in importance come those of tobacco, snuff, cigars, the making of cigar boxes, jute-spinning, distilling, sugar refining and the shelling of rice.
Other notable branches of manufacturing industry, besides those already named, are flour-mills, jute, hosiery, lace, paper, cement, hats, haberdashery, machinery, tobacco, soap and candle factories, iron and steel works, distilleries, breweries, potteries, vinegar, chocolate, varnish, furniture, clothing and brickworks.
In the textile industry for flax and hemp there were, in 1905, 276,000 fine spindles, 22,300 hand-looms and 17,600 power-looms in operation, and, in 1905, linen and jute materials were exported of an estimated value of over 2,000,000.
The jute manufacture, the principal centres of which are Berlin, Bonn, Brunswick and Hamburg, has of late attained considerable dimensions.
In addition to this, various industries were set on foot for the benefit of those who were not capable of field work, such as mat and rope making, and jute and cotton weaving.
2.7.1 (a) Wool and Worsted 2.7.2 (b) Flax, Hemp and Jute 2.7.3 (c) Cotton 2.7.4 (d) Silk and other Textiles 2.7.5 (e) Whisky and Beer 2.7.6 (f) Miscellaneous
Next to agriculture, weaving is the most important industry in the country, the cotton-mills of Bombay and the jute mills of Bengal having increased greatly of recent years.
Next to cotton, jute is the most important and prosperous of Indian manufactures.
The export of jute in1905-1906was 14,480,000 cwt.
On the left bank of the Ericht, opposite Blairgowrie, with which it is connected by a four-arched bridge, stands the town and police burgh of Rattray (pop. 2019), where there are flax and jute mills.
When the commerce of New England was interrupted as a consequence of the Napoleonic wars, the abundance of water power afforded by the rivers encouraged manufacturing, and the region rapidly acquired prominence in this industry, especially in the manufacture of textiles, of boots and shoes, and of paper and wood pulp; in 1905 the value of the textile products of New England (excluding flax, hemp and jute) alone was $522,821,440 (more than 45% of that of the entire country), the value of boots and shoes was $181,023,946 (more than 55% of the total for the entire country), the value of paper and wood pulp was $49,813,133 (more than one-quarter of that of the entire country), and the value of all factory products amounted to $2,025,998,437 (nearly one-seventh of the total for the entire country).
JUTE, a vegetable fibre now occupying a position in the manufacturing scale inferior only to cotton and flax.
The term jute appears to have been first used in 1746, when the captain of the "Wake" noted in his log that he had sent on shore "60 bales of gunney with all the jute rope" (New Eng.
- Capsules of Jute Plants.
The two species cultivated for jute fibre are in all respects very similar to each other, except in their fructification and the relatively greater size attained by C. capsularis.
The fibre known as China jute or Tien-tsin jute is the product of another plant, Abutilon Avicennae, a member of the Mallow family.
- Attempts have been made to grow the jute plant in America, Egypt, Africa and other places, but up to the present the fibre has proved much inferior to that obtained from plants grown in India.
"Jute seed experiments are being continued and the report for 1906 has been issued.
Other important manufactures are iron and steel, slaughtering and meat-packing products, boots and shoes, cigars, furniture, men's clothing, hosiery and knit goods, jute and jute goods, linen-thread, malt liquors, brick, cement, barbed wire, wire nails and planing-mill products.
Were: combined textiles (not including flax, hemp and jute products) in 1900, $77,998,396; in 1905, $103,096, 311; foundry and machine shop products in 1900, $13,269,086; in 1905, $16,338,512; woollen goods in 1900, $5,330,550; in 1905, $8,163,167; rubber boots and shoes in 1 9 00, $8,034,417; electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies in 1900, $5,113,292; in 1905, $5,435,474; silversmithing and silverware in 1900, $4,249,190; in 1905, $5,323,264; gold and silver, reducing and refining (not from ore) in 1900, $3,484,454; in 1905, $4,260,698; cotton small wares in 1900, $2,379,500; in 1 905, $3,944, 60 7; hosiery and knit goods in 1900, $2,713,850; in 1905, $3,344,655; silk and silk goods in 1900, $1,311,333; in 1905, $2,555,986.
It has manufactures of jute and machinery, brewing and iron-founding.
In Behar it has begun to replace indigo, and some success was achieved in Orissa, Assam and Madras; but jute is a very exhausting crop, and requires to be planted in lands fertilized with silt or else with manure.
Previous to the war the present Czechoslovak territories were responsible for 92% of the sugar produced by Austria-Hungary, for 46% of the spirits, beer 57%, malt 87%, foodstuffs 50%, chemicals 75%, metals 60%, porcelain too %, glass 90%, cotton goods 75%, woollen goods 80%, jute 90%, leather 70%, gloves 90%, boots 75%, paper 60%.
In addition to these and the cotton and jute mills there are indigo factories, rice mills, timber mills, coffee works, oil mills, iron and brass foundries, tile factories, printing presses, lac factories, silk mills, and paper mills.
The other textile industries (flax, jute, &c.) have made notable progress.