The members were called "justices," and in the king's absence the chief justiciar presided over the court.
In 1178 he appointed five members of the curia to form a special court of justice, and these justices, unlike the other members of the curia, were not to follow the king's court from place to place, but were to remain in one place.
The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court of Appeals, the Circuit courts, such inferior courts as may be established, county courts, the powers and duties of which are, however, chiefly police and fiscal, and in justices of the peace.
(See below under Local Government.) One or two justices of the peace (depending on population) are elected from each magisterial district; there must be not less than three, nor more than ten, districts in each county.
In 1661 the lords justices forbade all unlawful assemblies, and in these they included meetings of presbytery as exercising ecclesiastical jurisdiction not warranted by the law.
See Holliday's Life (1797); Campbell's Chief Justices; Foss's Judges; Greville's Memoirs, passim; Horace Walpole's Letters; and other memoirs and works on the period.
This tribunal differs from similar courts in the states inasmuch as it consists of a single member, called the " president," an officer appointed by the governor-general from among the justices of the High Court of Australia.
The judiciary is composed of a supreme court of seven members, a court of chancery, a county court in each county, a probate court in each probate district, and justices of the peace.
The same year he was named one of the justices of the peace for his borough; and on the grant of a new charter showed great zeal in defending the rights of the commoners, and succeeded in procuring an alteration in the charter in their favour, exhibiting much warmth of temper during the dispute and being committed to custody by the privy council for angry words spoken against the mayor, for which he afterwards apologized.
He returned in October, but was not included among the lords justices appointed regents during William's absence in this year.
These must be heard in the county courts before two visiting justices and four knights of the shire.
New provisions were introduced for the preservation of the peace - unlawful castles were to be destroyed - while others were directed towards making the administration of justice by the visiting justices less burdensome.
From April to December 1697 he discharged the duties of lord chamberlain, and for part of this time he was one of the lords justices, but the general suspicion with which he was regarded terrified him, and in December he resigned.
The first of these, based on the English model, are the courts of the elected justices of the peace, with jurisdiction over petty causes, whether civil or criminal; the second, based on the French model, are the ordinary tribunals of nominated judges, sitting with or without a jury to hear important cases.
The justices of the peace, who must be landowners' or (in towns) persons of moderate property, are elected by the municipal dumas in the towns, and by the zemstvos Justices in the country districts, for a term of three years.
Of the They are of two classes: (r) acting justices (uchastokvye mirovye sudi); (2) honorary justices (pochetnye mirovye sudi).
In other cases appeal can be made to the " assize of the peace " (mirovye syezd), consisting of three or more justices of the peace meeting monthly (cf.
From the town The judge (ispravnik), who, in spite of the principle laid ordinary down in 1864, combines judicial and administrative functions, an appeal lies (as in the case of the justices of the peace) to an assembly of such judges; from these again there is an appeal to the district court (okrugniya sud), consisting of three judges; 4 from this to the court of appeal (sudebniya palata); while over this again is the senate, which, as the supreme court of cassation, can send a case for retrial for reason shown.
Abolished the election of justices of the peace, except in certain large towns and some outlying parts of the empire, and greatly restricted the right of trial by jury.
In 1909 the third Duma restored the election of justices of the peace.
2 The justices, though noble-landowners, are almost exclusively of very moderate means, and, though elected by the land-owning class, they are - according to M.
These honorary justices are mainly recruited from the ranks of the higher bureaucracy and the army.
They can apply to the police commissaries (stanovoti) or to the justices of the peace; but the great distances to be traversed in a country so sparsely populated makes this course highly inconvenient.
The judicial department consists of a supreme court with a chief justice and two associate justices, chosen for six years, and district courts, with judges chosen for four years.
In 1674 he is mentioned as endeavouring to prevent the justices putting into force the laws against the Roman Catholics and Nonconformists.'
There are 26 justices of peace, to whose decision are referred slight contraventions of the law (lrraLQµara) and civil causes in which the amount claimed is below 600 francs.
The local judicial authorities are the county board of supervisors of five members and the justices of the peace.
Subordinate to them are the township boards of trustees, composed of a clerk, and two justices of the peace.
Three justices of the peace are elected from each ward for a term of two years.
The justices were authorized to fix wages at the Easter quarter sessions.
The constitution provides that the terms of supreme and circuit judges shall be such even number of years not less than six as may be prescribed by the legislature - the statutory provision is six years - that of the judges of the common pleas six years, that of the probate judges four years, that of other judges such even number of years not exceeding six as may be prescribed by the legislature - the statutory provision is six years - and that of justices of the peace such even number of years not exceeding four as may be thus prescribed - the statutory provision is four years.
The other township officials are the clerk, treasurer, assessor, supervisor of roads, justices of the peace, constables, board of education and board of health.
He acted as one of the lords justices during the absence from Ireland of the lord deputy, the earl of Sussex, in 1557.
The three judges of the Supreme Court and the seven of the circuit court serve for six years, those of the county courts for four years, and justices of the peace (one for each justice district, of which the county commissioners must form at least two in each county) hold office for four years.
By an act of 1844 it has been also given to the justices of assize; and crimes done within the jurisdiction of the admiralty are now tried as crimes committed within the body of a county.
In this latter passage Lord Coke records how, notwithstanding an agreement asserted to have been made in 1575 between the justices of the King's Bench and the judge of the admiralty, the judges of the common law courts successfully maintained their right to prohibit suits in admiralty upon contracts made on shore, or within havens, or creeks, or tidal rivers, if the waters were within the body of any county, wheresoever such contracts were broken, for torts committed within the body of a county, whether on land or water, and for contracts made in parts beyond the seas.
In 1219 the prior secured the right of holding a court there for all crown pleas and of sitting beside the justices itinerant, .and this led to serious collision between the monks and burgesses.
The judge of the United States district court and the chief justice and associate justices of the supreme court are appointed by the President with the consent of the Senate, and the judges of the district courts by the governor with the consent of the Executive Council.
This was confirmed in 1641, when it was also provided that the mayor and recorder should be ipso facto justices of the peace.
Parish boundaries are laid down with the help of local meresmen appointed by justices at quarter.
These Personal Liberty Laws forbade justices and judges to take cognizance of claims, extended the habeas corpus act and the privilege of jury trial to fugitives, and punished false testimony severely.
The judicial department comprises a supreme court consisting of a chief justice and (since 1881) four associate justices elected for terms of six years, and lower courts consisting of district courts with original jurisdiction in civil cases in law and equity, and in criminal cases upon indictments by grand juries; justices' courts, in which the amount in litigation cannot exceed $ioo, or the punishment cannot exceed three months' imprisonment or a fine of $loo; and of municipal and probate courts with the usual jurisdictions.
His itinerant justices were not altogether a novelty in England or Normandy.
It was followed by the Lives of the Chief Justices of England, from the Norman Conquest till the death of Lord Mansfield, 8vo, 2 vols., a book of similar construction but inferior merit.
There is a provincial division of the Supreme Court of South Africa sitting at Pretoria (consisting of a judge president and six puisne justices) with original and appellate jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters.
The arrangements of quarter-sessions, justices, coroners, sheriffs, &c., were thus brought into line with other counties, except in so far as the ordinary organization is modified by the existence of the central criminal court, the metropolitan police, police courts and magistrates, and a paid chairman of quarter-sessions.
It is the duty of the surveyor to keep the highways in repair; and if a highway is out of repair, the surveyor may be summoned before justices and convicted in a penalty not exceedin ordered to complete the repairs within, a limited time.
The board consists of representatives of the various parishes, called "way wardens" together with the justices for the county residing within the district.
There is a chief court for the province with a chief justice and three justices, established in May 1900.
A statute of 1553 made the breaking or defacing of an altar, crucifix or cross in any church, chapel or churchyard punishable with three months' imprisonment on conviction before two justices, the imprisonment to be continued unless the offender entered into surety for good behaviour at quarter sessions.