In 1708 he published his De ratione studiorum, in 1710 De antiquissima Italorum sapientia, in 1720 De universi juris uno principio et fine uno, and in 1721 De constantia jurisprudentis.
The first of these, De uno et universi juris principio et fine uno, was subdivided into two parts; so like.
Giobbio, I Concordati (Monza, 1900); idem, Lezioni di diplomazia ecclesiastica (Rome, 1899-1903); Cardinal Cavagnis, Institutiones juris publici ecclesiastici (Rome, 1906).
Bruns, Fontes juris Romani, c. 3, No.
Law; Ayliffe, Parergon juris ecclesiastici, p. 161; Godolphin, Abridgement of the Laws Ecclesiastical, p. 8).
The Austrian bishops, however, maintain their tribunals for spiritual purposes, and insist that such things as divorced vinculo must be granted by their authority (Aichner, Compendium juris ecclesiastici, pp. 551-553).
197 et seq.; p. 403 et seq.; Tauber, Manuale juris canonici, Sabariae, 1904, p. 277).
P. 205; Sanguineti, Juris ecc. inst., Rome, 18 9 0, pp. 393, 394).
In the Corpus juris canonici (1879-1881); " Hostiensis " Super Decretum; W.
Ayliffe, Parergon juris ecclesiastici (1726); J.
Gibson, Codex juris ecclesiastici (Oxford, 1761); D.
Sanguineti, Juris ecc. inst.
Aichner, Compendium juris ecclesiast.
Hackett, History of the Orthodox Church in Cyprus (1901); Tauber, Manuale juris canonici (1906); E.
Perhaps his edition of the Leges Visigothorum (1579) was his most valuable contribution to historical science; in the same line he edited the Capitula of Charlemagne, Louis the Pious, and Charles the Bald in 1588, and he also assisted his brother Francois in preparing an edition of the Corpus juris canonici (1687).
Walter, Corpus juris germanici antiqui (Berlin, 1824); Monumenta Germaniae historica, Leges.
At this period he wrote two important works which, owing to the distracted state of public affairs, remained unpublished, Institutiones juris ecclesiastici and Praelectiones juris ecclesiastici.
In the Corpus juris canonici the Decretum (pt.
The younger Aleandro was a very distinguished scholar, and wrote Psalmi poenitentiales versibus elegiacis expressi (Treves, 1593), Gaii, veteris juris consulti Institutionum fragmenta, cum commentario (Venice, 1600), Explicatio veteris tabulae marmorcae solis effigie symbolisque exculptae (Rome, 1616).
The diet, which met at Buda in hot haste, proclaimed the young king 2 dictator, 1 The Opus tripartitum juris consuetudinarii regni Hungariae was drawn up by Verbbczy at the instance of the diet in 1507.
He studied at Erfurt and in Italy, where he took his degree of doctor utriusque juris at Ferrara and devoted himself more especially to the study of Greek.
A well-known legal maxim runs: ignorantia juris non excusat ("ignorance of the law does not excuse").
So far as regards criminal offences, the maxim as to ignorantia juris admits of no exception, even in the case of a foreigner temporarily in England, who is likely to be ignorant of English law.
Allgemeines historisches Lexikon (Leipzig, 1709 ff.); Historia Ecclesiastica Veteris Testamenti (4 vols., Halle, 1709); Elementa Philosophiae Practicae, Instrumentalis, et Theoreticae (3 vols., 1697); Selecta Juris Naturae et Gentium (Halle, 1704); Miscellanea Sacra (3 vols., Jena, 1727); and Isagoge Historico-Theologica ad Theologiam Universam, singulasque ejus pales (2 vols., 1727).
The legal character of this transaction is summed up in a well-known passage in the Digest: - Interdictum de precariis merito introductum est, quia nulla eo nomine juris civilis actio esset, magis enim ad donationes et beneficii causam, quam ad negotii contracts spectat precarii conditio.
Historical journalism was first represented by Electa juris publici (1709), philology by Neue acerra philologica (1715-1723), philosophy by the Ada philosophorum (1715-1727), medicine by Der patriotische Medikus (1725), music by Der musikalische Patriot (1725), and education by Die Matrone (1728).
According to the medieval canon law, based on the decretals, and codified in the 13th century in the Corpus juris canonici, by which the earlier powers of metropolitans had been greatly curtailed, the powers of the archbishop consisted in the right (i) to confirm and consecrate suffragan bishops; (2) to summon and preside over provincial synods; (3) to superintend the suffragans and visit their dioceses, as well as to censure and punish bishops in the interests of discipline, the right of deprivation, however, being reserved to the pope; (4) to act as a court of appeal from the diocesan courts; (5) to exercise the jus devolutionis, i.e.
Among his noteworthy achievements are the reform of the calendar on the 24th of February 1582 (see Calendar); the improved edition of the Corpus juris canonici, 1582; the splendid Gregorian Chapel in St Peter's; the fountains of the Piazza Navona; the Quirinal Palace; and many other public works.
(See Canon Law and Decretals, False.) As every fully equipped university had its faculty of canon law in which the Corpus juris canonici was studied, Rashdall is hardly guilty of exaggeration when he says: " By means of the happy thought of the Bolognese monk the popes were enabled to convert the new-born universities - the offspring of that intellectual new birth of Europe which might have been so formidable an enemy to the papal pretensions - into so many engines for the propagation of Ultramontane ideas."
Thomas Aquinas was the first theologian to describe the Church as a divinely organized absolute monarchy, whose head concentrated in his person the entire authority of the Church, and was the source of all the ecclesiastical law (conditor juris), issuing the decrees of general councils in his own name, and claiming the right to revoke or modify the decrees of former councils - indeed, to make exceptions or to set aside altogether anything which did not rest upon the dictates of divine or natural law.
(2) Basilica, a compilation from the different parts of the Justinian Corpus Juris, subsequently the text-book for the study of law.
"Suprematum illi tribuo qui non tantum domi subditos manu militari regit, sed et qui exercitum extra fines ducere et armis, foederibus, legationibus, ac caeteris juris gentium functionibus aliquid momenti ad rerum Europae generalium summam conferre potest" (Leibnitz, Opera, 4.333).
His most important works were Introductio in controversies juris civilis recentioris (Jena, 1771) and Geschichte der in Deutschland geltenden Rechte (Jena, 1780).
This partial civitas does not seem to have been entirely replaced, as in Italy, by the grant of full privileges to the communities possessing it, and the distinction survived for some time in the provinces between coloniae, municipia juris Romani, and municipia juris Latini.
Authorities.-C. Bruns, Fontes juris romani, c. III., No.
Compensation, in its most familiar sense, is however a nomen juris for the reparation or satisfaction made to the owners of property which is taken by the state or by local authorities or by the promoters of parliamentary undertakings, under statutory authority, for public purposes.
On his return to Rome, about 1622, he took his degree as Doctor utriusque juris, and then became captain of infantry in the regiment of Colonna, which took part in the war in the Valtelline.
He insisted on the imperative duty of bishops and clergy to reside in their benefices, publishing at Venice (1547) his discourse to the council De necessaria residentia personali, which he treated as juris divini.
Gregory did good service, moreover, by his reform of the calendar which bears his name, by his emended edition of the Corpus juris canonici and by the creation of nunciatures.
Propaganda: De Martinis, Juris pontificii de Propaganda Fide, &c. (Rome, 1888, &c.); Collectanea S.
Goldast, Gollectio constitutionum imperialium (1613; new and enlarged edition, 1673); the Capitulationes imperatorum et regum Romana-Germanorum (Strassburg, 1851) of Johann Limngus, and the Corpus juris Germanici antiqui (Berlin, 1824) of F.
C. von Carmer (1721-1801) on the basis of the Project des Corporis Juris Fridericiani, completed in the year 1749-1751 by the eminent jurist Samuel von Cocceji (1679-1755).
Before entering on this, however, he wisely took the preliminary step of settling the more important of the legal questions as to which the older jurists had been divided in opinion, and which had therefore remained sources of difficulty, a difficulty aggra 1 See, for an account of the instructions given to the commission, the constitution Haec quae, prefixed to the revised Codex in the Corpus juris civilis.
They may be found printed in any edition of the Corpus juris civilis.
This Corpus juris, which bears and immortalizes Justinian's name, consists of the four books described above: (1) The authorized collection of imperial ordinances (Codex constitutionum); (2) the authorized collection of extracts from the great jurists (Digesta or Pandectae); (3) the elementary handbook (Institutiones); (4) the unauthorized collection of constitutions subsequent to the Codex (Novellae).
The Corpus Juris of Justinian continued to be, with naturally a few additions in the ordinances of succeeding emperors, the chief law-book of the Roman world till the time of the Macedonian dynasty when, towards the end of the 9th century, a new system was prepared and issued by those sovereigns, which we know as the Basilica.
Persons not sui juris detained by those not entitled to their guardianship or lunatics, or persons kidnapped, habeas corpus ad subjiciendum seems not to have been the ordinary common law remedy.