The only town charter is one of 1567-1568, in which Queen Elizabeth confirms an ancient privilege of the burgesses that they should not be upon assizes or juries with strangers, relating to matters outside the town.
Juries, a petty jury, and a tribunal consisting of nearly all the lay peers of England, with the evidence before them which we do not now possess, should have all unanimously passed a sentence of guilt contrary to the facts and their convictions, and that such a sentence should have been supported by Anne's own father and uncle.
The insurrection of dissenters (1708-1711), which was headed by Thomas Carey, who was deputy-governor while the trouble was brewing, was in opposition to the establishment of the Church of England; it was ultimately unsuccessful, the Church was established in 1711, a law was passed which deprived Quakers of the privilege of serving on juries or holding public office, and the establishment was continued until the War of Independence.
She quartered troops in Boston; she made the juries, sheriffs and judges of the colony dependent on the royal officers; she ordered capital offenders to be tried in Nova Scotia or England; she endeavoured completely to control or to abolish town-meetings; and finally, by the so-called " Boston Port Bill," she closed the port of Boston on the 1st of June 1774.
Juries are mentioned, sometimes of the county and sometimes of the county and merchants.
The judicial department comprises a supreme court consisting of a chief justice and (since 1881) four associate justices elected for terms of six years, and lower courts consisting of district courts with original jurisdiction in civil cases in law and equity, and in criminal cases upon indictments by grand juries; justices' courts, in which the amount in litigation cannot exceed $ioo, or the punishment cannot exceed three months' imprisonment or a fine of $loo; and of municipal and probate courts with the usual jurisdictions.
On the other hand, at nisi prius and on the criminal circuit, he was accused of frequently attempting unduly to influence juries in their estimate of the credibility of evidence.
An important event must be referred probably to the year 451, - the law of Pericles, by which citizenship (including the right to vote in the Ecclesia and to sit on paid juries) was restricted to those who could prove themselves the children of an Athenian father and mother (E d,u001v avroiv).
The endeavour to restrict juries to those who understand Italian reveals glaring incongruities.
One of the first measures to which he directed his attention was the withdrawal of the power of nominating juries from the judges, and the imparting, of a right of peremptory challenge to prisoners.
There were special privileges surrounding tenancies of these lands, such as freedom from tolls and duties, exemption from danegeld and amercement, from sitting on juries, &c. Hence, the phrase "ancient demesne" came to be applied to the tenure by which the lands were held.
The latter is in many states neither prompt nor certain, offenders frequently escaping through the excessive regard for technicalities even more than through the indulgence of juries and the occasional weakness of judges.
The charge was absurd, but as the juries at that time were chosen from the equites, his condemnation was only to be expected.
All petitions for divorce must be approved by two successive juries, and a woman holds in her own name all property acquired before and after marriage.
Elizabeth in 1577 gave exclusive admiralty jurisdiction within the island of Purbeck to Sir Christopher Hatton, and granted the mayor and "barons" of Corfe the rights they enjoyed by prescription and charter and that of not being placed on juries or assizes in matters beyond the island.
The juries, both for answering the questions asked by the judges and for trying cases under the grand assize, were to be chosen by a committee of four knights, also elected by the suitors of each county court for that purpose.
The town government during this period was by the bishop's bailiff, and the holders of the burgages composed the juries of the bishop's courts leet and baron.
Royal authority, sheriffs, juries and witnesses gradually superseded ordeal, compurgation, and trial by battle, though even barons long retained the right of " pit and gallows."
On the whole, in the art of winning over juries he had scarcely an equal in the law courts.
Finally he endeavoured, though unsuccessfully, to secure the introduction of juries into the courts of chancery, and - a generation and more before the fruition of the labours of Romilly and his coworkers in England - aided in securing a humanitarian revision of the penal code, 4 which, though lost by one vote in 1785, was sustained by public sentiment, and was adopted in 1796.
Lord Camden was a strenuous opponent of Fox's India Bill, took an animated part in the debates on important public matters till within two years of his death, introduced in 1786 the scheme of a regency on occasion of the king's insanity, and to the last zealously defended his early views on the functions of juries, especially of their right to decide on all questions of libel.
He was less successful in addressing juries, and towards the close of his career did not take Nisi Arius work, but in the court of appeal and House of Lords and before the judicial committee of the privy council he enjoyed a very large practice, making for some time fully Li 5,000 a year.
The jury system does not exist in Chile, and juries are unknown except in cases where the freedom of the press has been abused.
In order to obtain servile parliaments and also obsequious juries, who with the co-operation of judges of the stamp of Jeffreys could be depended upon to carry out the wishes of the court, the borough charters were confiscated, the charter of the city of London being forfeited on the 12th of June 1683.
The coast of Alaska offers exceptional facilities for smuggling, and liquor has always been very plentiful; juries have steadily refused to convict offenders, and treasury officials have regularly collected revenue from saloons existing in defiance of law.
In 1819 he attracted much attention by his vigorous charges to grand juries, denouncing the slave trade, and in 1820 he was a prominent member of the Massachusetts Convention called to revise the state constitution.
The most important was an extension of the use of juries into the province of taxation.
Judges and juries alike were maddened with excitement, and listened greedily to the lies which poured forth from the lips of profligate informers.
The fiscal jurisdiction of grand juries, which had lasted for more than two centuries and a half, was entirely swept away.
(2) Before the passing of the act grants were made from the imperial exchequer to the grand juries in aid of the maintenance of lunatics and to boards of guardians for medical and educational purposes and for salaries under the Public Health (Ireland) Act.
The same tendency was indirectly exerted by the tolerance of Athenian juries (in the absence of a presiding expert like a judge) for irrelevant matter, since it was usually easy for a speaker to make capital out of the adversary's political antecedents.
It was due to him that, in 1832, the right, so important in actual French practice, was given to juries to find "extenuating circumstances" in cases when guilt involved the death penalty.
Whigs were brought before prejudiced juries and partial judges.
The legality of this suggestion was more than doubtful, but it was none the less acted on, and a series of press prosecutions followed, someas in the case of the bookseller William Honeon grounds so trivial that juries refused to convict.
Sir Robert Peel had attempted to deal with it (1) by purchasing large quantities of Indian corn, which he had retailed at low prices in Ireland, and (2) by enabling the grand juries to employ the people on public works, which were to be paid out of moneys advanced by the state, one-half being ultimately repayable by the locality.
Juries would not punish homicide with severity.