Juniper forests are said to exist on the higher mountains.
Schinzia, which forms galllike swellings on the roots of rushes; Gymnosporangium, causing excrescences on juniper stems; numerous leaf Fungi such as Puccinia, Aecidium, Sep/one, &c., causing yellow, brown or black spots on leaves; or Ustilago in the anthers of certain flowers.
In very limited spaces on other mountains there are scattered trees - the pinon (nut pine) and the juniper at an altitude between 5000 and 7000 ft.
This stage in the life-history was formerly regarded as a distinct fungus with the name Roestelia cancellata; it is now known, however, that the spores germinate on young juniper leaves, in which they give rise to this other stage in the plant's history known as Gymnosporangium.
In Norway the sprays, like those of the juniper, are scattered over the floors of churches and the sitting-rooms of dwelling-houses, as a fragrant and healthful substitute for carpet or matting.
The alpine rose (Rhododendron dauricum) clusters in masses on the higher mountains; juniper, spiraea, sorbus, the pseudo-acacia (Caragana sibirica and C. arborescens, C. jubata in some of the higher tracts), various Rosaceae - Potentilla fruticosa and Cotoneaster uniflora - the wild cherry (Prunus Padus), and many other shrubs occupy the spaces between the trees.
The lower valleys produce dates in abundance, and at higher elevations wheat, barley, millets and excellent fruit are grown, while juniper forests are said to cover the mountain slopes.
In Yemen this tree was probably more common formerly; the place-name Arar, signifying juniper, is still often found where the tree no longer exists.
Of Coniferae the juniper is found on the higher slopes of J.
The wood of the cedar of Lebanon is fragrant, though not so strongly scented as that of the juniper or red-cedar of America.
The term arz is applied by the Arabs to the cedar of Lebanon, to the common pine-tree, and to the juniper; and certainly the "cedars" for masts, mentioned in Ezek.
Thuja gigantea of western North America is known in the United States as White (or Yellow) cedar, and the same name is applied to Cupressus Lawsoniana, the Port Orford or Oregon cedar, a native of the north-west States, and one of the most valuable juniper trees of North America.
A few of the higher mountains have the Aleppo pine and the juniper; elsewhere only an infrequent wild terebinth is to be seen.
Along the western side of northern Anti-Lebanon stretches the Khasha'a, a rough red region lined with juniper trees, a succession of the hardest limestone crests and ridges, bristling with bare rock and crag that shelter tufts of vegetation, and are divided by a succession of grassy ravines.
The western half of these plains has only a few trees along the watercourses and some scraggy bushes of oak, juniper and cedar in the more hilly sections.
The upper regions of Mt Elgon, Mt Debasien and Mt Agoro are clothed with forests of conifers - juniper and yew - and witch-hazels (Trichocladus).
The principal kind of tree is the so-called "Bermudas cedar," really a species of juniper, which furnishes timber for small vessels.
In central and southern Mexico the mountain slopes are forested up to 12,500 to 13,500 ft., juniper bushes continuing up to 14,000 ft.
When hard put to it for food, coyotes will, it is reported, eat hips, juniper-berries and other wild fruits.
Above the sea-level, and ranging as high as the limits of the thickets of birch, rhododendron and juniper, among which it mostly conceals itself in the daytime.
Juniper, cinnamon, carraway, camomile, cloves and other flavouring agents are also employed in conjunction with the bitter principles, alcohol and sugar.
South of the Arctic circle they are, under ordinary circumstances, confined to the plateaus covered with dwarf birch and juniper above the conifer-region, though in Tromso amt and in Finmarken they occur in all suitable localities down to the level of the sea.
Three species of rhododendron vie with each other in the brilliancy of their masses of red or pink flowers; the common juniper rises higher still, along with three species of bilberry; and several dwarf willows attain nearly to the utmost limit of vegetation.
Furze and the common juniper are regular dune plants, and may also be found on the heaths of Drente, Overysel and Gelderland.
In the valleys of the Waksh and Pro- and the Surkhab to the north of Darwaz, which form an important part of the province of Karategin, maple, ash, hawthorn, pistachio, and juniper grow freely in the mountain forests, and beetroot, kohl rabi, and other vegetables are widely cultivated.
We have also the yew, the hazel, juniper, walnut, wild peach and almond.
Among the indigenous trees are the Abies excelsa, Abies microsperma, Pinus sinensis, Pinus pinea, three species of oak, five of maple, lime, birch, juniper, mountain ash, walnut, Spanish chestnut, hazel, willow, hornbeam, hawthorn, plum, pear, peach, Rhus vernicifera, (?) Rhus semipinnata, Acanthopanax ricinifolia, Zelkawa, Thuja orientalis, Elaeagnus, Sophora Japonica, &c. Azaleas and rhododendrons are widely distributed, as well as other flowering shrubs and creepers, Ampelopsis Veitchii being universal.
Nut pine, juniper and true sage-brush (Artemisia tridentata) characterize the upper Sonoran, - although the latter grows equally in the transition zone.
Above the firs come the tamarack, constituting the bulk of the lower Alpine forest; the hardy long-lived mountain pine; the red cedar or juniper, growing even on the baldest rocks; the beautiful hemlock spruce; the still higher white pine, nut pine, needle pine; and finally, at io,000 to 12,000 ft., the dwarf pine, which grows in a tangle on the earth over which one walks, and may not show for a century's growth more than a foot of height or an inch of girth.
Other trees are the juniper, willow, green ash, box elder, scrub oak, wild plum and wild cherry.
The lower slopes are usually covered with the scrub oak, juniper and pinon; but some mountains, especially those along the eastern border of the Rio Grande Valley, are absolutely treeless.
Among its Gymnosperms are numerous Cupressineae of African affinity belonging to the genera Callitris and Widdringtonia, and a juniper close to one indigenous in Greece.
Full-grown specimens occur of the archa or juniper (Juniperus pseudo-Sabina), characteristic of the whole northern slopes of the Turkestan highlands, the poplar, spruces, cedars, a very few birches (B.
Of course the juniper and a few other deciduous trees also occur.
Thurifera is the incense juniper of Spain and Portugal, and J.
The common juniper is a very widely distributed plant, occurring in the whole of northern Europe, central and northern Asia to Kamchatka, and east and west North America.
In former times the juniper seems to have been a very well-known plant, the name occurring almost unaltered in many languages.
The common juniper is official in the British pharmacopoeia and in that of the United States, yielding the oil of juniper, a powerful diuretic, distilled from the unripe fruits.
The fruits are used for flavouring girl (a name derived from juniper, through Fr.
Churchill.) Juniper (Juniperus communis) half nat.
One of the best known examples is the Chinese juniper (Juniperus chinensis), in which branches with spinous leaves, longer and more spreading than the ordinary adult leaf, are often found associated with the normal type of branch.
In the Mediterranean region occur Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus Pinea (stone pine), species of juniper, Cedrus atlantica, C. Libani, Callitris quadrivalvis, Pinus montana, &c. Several conifers of economic importance are abundant on the Atlantic side of North America - Juniperus virginiana (red cedar, used in the manufacture of lead pencils, and extending as far south as Florida), Taxodium distichum (swamp cypress), Pinus rigida (pitch pine), P. mitis (yellow pine), P. taeda,P. palustris, &c. On the west side of the American continent conifers play a still more striking role; among them are Chamaecyparis nutkaensis, Picea sitchensis, Libocedrus decurrens, Pseudotsuga Douglasii (Douglas fir), Sequoia sempervirens, S.