Behind the luxuriant jungles of the sub-tropical coast, once over the main range, we find the purely Australian flora with its apparent sameness and sombre dulness.
The flying fox; the python, the cobra, and many other varieties of snake, including the hamadryad; the alligator, the otter and the gavial, as well as countless kinds of squirrel, rat, &c., are found throughout the jungles of the peninsula in great numbers.
By far the larger part of the valley is quite uncultivated, and much of it is occupied by tamarisk jungles, the home of countless wild pigs.
The swamps are full of huge reeds, bordered with tamarisk jungles, and in its lower reaches, where the water stretches out into great marshes, the river is clogged with a growth of agrostis.
Put comprehensively, it involves the control of the subsoil and surface waters by drainage, the regulation of rivers and floods, suitable agriculture, the clearing of forests or jungles, which tend to increase the rainfall and keep the ground swampy.
The forest areas of India include the dense vegetation and luxuriant growth of the Tarai jungles at the foot of the eastern Himalaya, and wide stretches of loosely-timbered country which are a prevailing feature in the Central Provinces and parts of Madras.
Hyenas, jackals, wild pig, polecats and wild dogs (Canis pictus) of different species are still found in or about bush jungles and forest clumps; elands (Antilope oreas) are preserved on some estates, and there are at least ten distinct species of antelope (hartebeest, bushbok, duiker, rietbok, rhebok, rovibok, blauwbok, &c.).
The largest of the serpent tribe, however, is the python (Hortulia natalensis), called inhlwati by the natives; its usual haunts are by streams amongst rocky boulders and in jungles, and instances are recorded of its strangling See R.
The jungles afford good pasturage in the hot weather, and abound in lac, silk cocoons, catechu, resin and the mahud fruit, which is both used as fruit and for the manufacture of spirits.
In the jungles the Marias, who are among the aboriginal tribes of Gond origin, raise kosra (Panicum italicum) and other inferior grains.
They inhabit the densest jungles and are very shy, avoiding contact with strangers, and flying to the hills on the least alarm; but they bear a good character for honesty and truthfulness.
In the denser jungles malaria prevails for months after the cessation of the rains, but the Gonds do not appear to suffer much from its effects.
Travellers and strangers who venture into these jungles run the risk of fever of a severe type at almost all seasons of the year.
Round Mount Egmont, at Orakau, at Tauranga and in the Wanganui jungles, they more than once held their own against British regiments and colonial riflemen.
Thence she contributed some clever papers, " From the Caves and Jungles of Hindostan " (published separately in English, London, 1892) to the Russky Vyestnik.
In the dense jungles of the south are immense creepers, some of them rubber-vines.
The Assam Indigenous, in its two sub-races of Singlo and Bazalona, and the Manipur, originally found wild in the jungles of the native state of that name, have, with various intermixtures and crossings, been used to cover the greatest areas of all the more modern planting in India, Ceylon and Java.
In the jungles of Ceylon are to be found remains of gigantic irrigation dams, and on the neighbouring mainland of Southern India, throughout the provinces of Madras and Mysore, the country is covered with irrigation reservoirs, or, as they are locally termed, tanks.
The malarious tarsi fringing the Himalayas, the uninhabitable swamps of the Gangetic delta, and the wide jungles of the central plateau are at present the chief home of the tiger.
The wild dog, or dhole (Cyon), is found in all the wilder jungles of India, including Assam and Lower Burma.
The hill jungles of the country, in the Western Ghats, in Central India, in Assam, and in Burma.
Other kinds of silk are native to certain parts of India, such as those produced by the " castor oil " and the muga silkworms of Assam; but the chief of the wild silks is the tussore silk, which is found in the jungles nearly throughout India.
Chitu fled to the jungles, and was killed by a tiger.
The sal tree yields the most important timber; the finest logs are cut in the Khairagarh jungles and floated down the Gogra to Bahramghat, where they are sawn.
Among the scattered jungles in various parts of the province, the mahua tree is prized alike for its edible flowers, its fruits and its timber.
Moreover, they had lofty forts, numerously garrisoned and plentifully provided with warlike stores; and the approach to them was opposed by thick and dangerous jungles, and broad and boisterous rivers.
Jackals are nocturnal animals, concealing themselves until dusk in woody jungles and other natural lurking places, and then sallying forth in packs, which sometimes number two hundred individuals, and visiting farmyards, villages and towns in search of food.
Trade has enormously expanded; new centres of commerce have sprung up in spots which formerly were silent jungles; new staples of trade, such as tea and jute, have rapidly attained importance; and the coalfields and iron ores have opened up prospects of a new and splendid era in the internal development of the country.
This was the decisive action of the campaign in Central India, and Tantia Topi was obliged to seek refuge in the jungles of Rajputana and Bundelkhand, where he was taken by Major Meade, condemned, and executed on the 18th of April 18 J9.