Above the sea; it soon becomes a considerable stream, collecting in its course the waters of other rivers, and finally discharging itself into the Jumna after a course of 560 m.
It does not breed in captivity, and is not found wild west of the Jumna river in northern India.
The sloping country on the bank of the Jumna is full of ravines.
The principal river of the district is the Jumna, which flows from north-west to south-east, along the N.E.
The city is on the right bank of the Jumna, 30 m.
For eight months of the year the Jumna shrinks to the dimensions of a mere rivulet, meandering through a waste of sand.
At Allahabad, however, it receives the Jumna, a mighty sister stream, which takes its rise also in the Himalayas to the west of the sources of the Ganges.
But the tongue of land at Allahabad, where the Jumna and the Ganges join, is the true Prayag, the place of pilgrimage, to which hundreds of thousands of devout Hindus repair to wash away their sins in the sacred river.
The Ganges is essentially a river of great cities: Calcutta, Monghyr, Patna, Benares and Allahabad all lie on its course below its junction with the Jumna; and the ancient capitals, Agra and Delhi, are on the Jumna, higher up. The catchment basin of the Ganges is bounded on the N.
The two canals, together with the eastern Jumna, command the greater portion of the Doab lying between the Ganges and the Jumna, above Allahabad.
The Jumna and the Ken are the only two navigable rivers.
Under his dynasty the country attained its greatest splendour in the early part of the 11th century, when its raja, whose dominions extended from the Jumna to the Nerbudda, marched at the head of 36,000 horse and 45,000 foot, with 640 elephants, to oppose the invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni.
The Ganges bounds the Dehra valley on the E.; the Jumna bounds it on the W.
To the west of this ridge the water collects to form the Asan, a tributary of the Jumna; whilst to the east the Suswa receives the drainage and flows into the Ganges.
The canal receives its water from the Jumna river at Okla, about 10 m.
The weir across the Jumna was the first attempted in Upper India upon a foundation of fine sand; it is about 800 yds.
From Okla the canal follows the high land between the Khari-nadi and the Jumna, and finally joins the Banganga river about 20 m.
Then in 1018, with a very large force, he proceeded to India again, extending his inroad this time to the great Hindu cities of Mathra on the Jumna and Kanauj on the Ganges.
BETWA, a river of India, which rises in the native state of Bhopal in Malwa, and after a course of 360 m., for the most part in a north-easterly direction, falls into the Jumna at Hamirpur.
The scene is laid in the neighbourhood of Muttra, on the right bank of the Jumna, where the whole country to the present day is holy ground.
Daulat Rao was then compelled to sign the treaty of Sarji Anjangaon (December 30, 1803), which stripped him of his territories between the Jumna and Ganges, the district of Broach in Gujarat and other lands in the south.
His empire rivalled that of Asoka, extending from the Hugli on the east to the Jumna and Chambal on the west, and from the foot of the Himalayas on the north to the Nerbudda on the south.
The city is situated at the confluence of the Ganges and the Jumna in 25°26' N.
It owes its sanctity to its being the reputed confluence of three sacred streams - the Ganges, the Jumna and the Saraswati.
The Jumna is crossed by a railway bridge and there are two bridges of boats over the Ganges.
The Jumna and the Ganges enclose within their angle a fertile tract well irrigated with tanks and wells.
BRINDABAN, a town of British India, in the Muttra district of the United Provinces, on the right bank of the Jumna, 6 m.
In India it is confined to the province of Kathiawar in Gujerat, though within the 19th century it extended through the north-west parts of Hindustan, from Bahawalpur and Sind to at least the Jumna (about Delhi) southward as far as Khandesh, and in central India through the Sagur and Narbuda territories, Bundelkund, and as far east as Palamau.
Beginning with the Punjab, the province in which most progress has been made, the great Sutlej canal, which irrigates the country to the left of that river, was opened in 1882, and the Western Jumna canal (perhaps the oldest in India) was extended into the dry Hissar and Sirsa districts, and generally improved so as to increase by nearly 5 o% its area of irrigation between 1878 and 1897.
Perhaps this is as much as can well be done with the water at command for the country between the Sutlej and the Jumna, and it is enough to secure it for ever from famine.
Turning from the basin of the Indus to that of the Ganges, the commissioners appointed to report on the famine of1896-1897found that in the country between the Ganges and the Jumna little was left to be done beyond the completion of some distributary channels.
Menander (126 B.C.) invaded India at least to the Jumna, and perhaps also to the Indus delta.
Kosambi, the capital of the Vamsas, lay on the Jumna, 230 m.
Sindhia ceded all claims to the territory north of the Jumna, and left the blind old emperor Shah Alam once more under British protection.
The province occupies, roughly speaking, the upper basin of the Ganges and the Jumna, corresponding to the Hindostan proper of the Mahommedan chroniclers.
South of the Jumna is the poor and backward region of Bundelkhand, comprising the districts of Jalaun, Jhansi, Hamirpur and Banda.
The southernmost portion of Bundelkhand is much cut up by spurs of sandstone and granite hills, running down from the Vindhyan system; but the northern half near the Jumna has a somewhat richer soil, and comes nearer in character to the plain of Doab.
Below the junction of the Ganges and the Jumna at Allahabad the country begins to assume the appearance of the Bengal plains, and once more expands northwards to the foot of the Nepal Himalayas.
The Ganges and its affluents, the Jumna, the Ramganga and the Gogra, rise in the Himalayas, and meet within the province.
In addition there are the following secondary streams: the Kalinadi and the Hindan flow through the Doab; the Chambal intersects the trans-Jumna tract; in Bundelkhand the principal streams are the Betwa and the Ken; the Ramgana, rising in Garhwal, pursues a tortuous course through Rohilkhand; the Gumti flows past Lucknow and Jaunpur to join the Ganges; the trans-Gogra region is divided into two nearly equal parts by the Rapti.
The major productive works are the upper and lower Ganges, the eastern Jumna, and the Agra canals.
Principal rivers are the Ganges and Jumna - the former navigable all the year round, the latter only during the rains.
The case was, however, very different in the adjoining valley of the Jumna and Ganges, the sacred Madhyadesa or Middle-land of classical India.
The banks of the great rivers such as the Ganga (Ganges), the Yamuna (Jumna), the Narbada, the Krishna (Kistna), are studded with them, and the water of these rivers is supposed to be imbued with the essence of sanctity capable of cleansing the pious bather of all sin and moral taint.
In his further travels he visited Mathura (Mot'ulo, Muttra), whence he turned north to Thanesar and the upper Jumna and Ganges, returning south down the valley of the latter to Kanyakubja or Kanauj, then one of the great capitals of India.
West of the Blas river a similar reversed fault forms the boundary between the lower Tertiaries and the pre-Tertiary rocks of the Himalaya, while between the Sutlej and the Jumna rivers, where the lower Tertiaries help to form the lower Himalaya, the fault lies between them and the Siwaliks.
The elephant is found in the outer forests as far as the Jumna, and the rhinoceros as far as the Sarda; the spread of both of these animals as far as the Indus and into the plains of India, far beyond their present limits, is authenticated by historical records; they have probably retreated before the advance of cultivation and fire-arms. Wild pigs are common in the lower ranges, and one peculiar species of pigmy-hog (Sus salvanius) of very small size inhabits the forests at the base of the mountains in Nepal and Sikim.
The river Jumna, which washes the walls of its fort, was the natural highway for the traffic of the rich delta of Bengal to the heart of India, and it formed, moreover, from very ancient times, the frontier defence of the Aryan stock settled in the plain between the Ganges and the Jumna against their western neighbours, hereditary freebooters who occupied the highlands of Central India.
The district is intersected by the Jumna, and is also watered by the Agra canal.
It consists of a strip of territory on the right or west bank of the Jumna river, 75 m.
Most of the district consists of hard and stony soil, depending upon irrigation, which is supplied by the Western Jumna canal, the Ali Mardan canal and the Agra canal.
The imperial palace, the Jama Masjid or Great Mosque, and the restoration of what is now the western Jumna canal, are the work of Shah Jahan.
To the south, their drainage supplies two distinct river systems, one of which debouches in comparatively small streams on the Gulf of Cambay, while the other unites to form the Chambal river, a great southern tributary of the Jumna, flowing thence via the Ganges, into the Bay of Bengal on the other side of India.