William wintered in Holland, Montecucculi in Cologne and Julich, and the Spaniards, who had served with William, in their own provinces of the Meuse.
The Westphalian circle which was formed at the same time comprised nearly all the rest of the modern province (including Mark) and the lands north of it between the Weser and the frontier of the Netherlands, also Verden, Schaumburg, Nassau, Wied, Lippe, Berg, Cleves, Julich, Liege, Bouillon and Cambrai.
After a separation of four and a half centuries, the Palatinate, to which the duchies of Julich and Berg had been added, was thus reunited with Bavaria.
In 1 347 the town passed with the countship of Ravensberg to the duchy of Julich, and in 1666 to that of Brandenburg.
Thus, under Maximilian of Bavaria and Christian of Anhalt respectively the two great parties were gaining a better idea of their own needs and of each others aims and were watching vigilantly the position in the duchies of Cleves, Julich and Berg, where a dispute over the succession was impending.
Ottius, Annales Anabaptistici (Basileae, 1772); Karl Rembert, Die Wiedertdufer in Herzogtum Julich (Munster, 1873); Universal Lexicon, art.
It remained a place of little importance until the 17th century, when religious persecution drove to it a number of Calvinists and Separatists from Julich and Berg (followed later by Mennonites), who introduced the manufacture of linen.