The judiciary system of Italy is mainly framed on the French model.
Baldwin, The American Judiciary (ibid., 1905).
The judiciary is composed of a supreme court of seven members, a court of chancery, a county court in each county, a probate court in each probate district, and justices of the peace.
The organization of the judiciary is similar to that under the old English system.
New York City (q.v.) has an extensive judiciary system of its own.
The dissertations not embodied in his great work were collected by himself and (after his death) by his pupil, Camille Jullian, and published as volumes of miscellanies: Recherches sur quelques problemes d'histoire (1885), dealing with the Roman colonate, the land system in Normandy, the Germanic mark, and the judiciary organization in the kingdom of the Franks; Nouvelles recherches sur quelques problemes d'histoire (1891); and Questions historiques (1893), which contains his paper on Chios and his thesis on Polybius.
As chairman of the judiciary committee he conducted the impeachment trial (1830) of Judge James H.
The judiciary consists of a supreme court of three judges, thirteen (1908) circuit courts, seven (1908) chancery courts, county courts and justice of thelpeace courts.
The judiciary is composed of a supreme court, superior courts and courts of first instance, and justices of the peace.
30 1919 did the Senate Judiciary Committee hand in its report recommending the appointment.
For the judiciary, provisions were made for expediting trials and decisions.
This acted at once and without any consciousness of difference of function, as judiciary, as legislature, in so far as there was any in the feudal period, and as council, and it exercised final supervision and control over revenue and administration.
In each there was a governor, with minor executive officers, a legislature, and a judiciary; and although the Crown retained the power of altering the charter, and the British parliament could (in strict legal view) legislate over the head of the colonial legislature so as to abrogate statutes passed by the latter, still in practice each colony was allowed to manage its own affairs and to enact the laws it desired.
Judiciary six years, provided for quadrennial sessions of the legislature, and introduced the office of lieutenant-governor.
Thus, while armaments are increasing, and wars are being fought out in the press and in public discussion, the great powers are steadily working out a system of written law and establishing a judiciary to adjust their differences in accordance with it.'
It increased the number of senators and representatives, created the office of lieutenant-governor, substituted biennial for annual sessions of the legislature, introduced minority representation in the choice of the higher judiciary and of the county commissioners and auditors and provided (as had an amendment adopted in 1850) for the election of all judges by popular vote.
The cultus applied at first to local martyrs, and it was only in exceptional circumstances that a kind of judiciary inquiry and express decision became necessary to legitimate this cultus.
Peck, led an unsuccessful movement to increase the number of Supreme Court judges and to relieve them of their circuit duties, and succeeded in defeating an attempt to repeal the twenty-fifth section of the Judiciary Act of 1789, which gave the Supreme Court appellate jurisdiction by writ of error to the state courts in cases where federal laws and treaties are in question.
He also obtained the suppression of the religious orders and of all ecclesiastical privileges, and actively contributed to the change of the judiciary and administrative system.
He worked for a revision of Ellsworth's judiciary act of 1789, and especially to relieve justices of the supreme court 1 The plan was not drafted by Randolph, but he presented it because he was governor.
The plan provided for a Federal judiciary, the judges to be appointed by the national legislature, to hold office during good behaviour, and to have jurisdiction over cases in admiralty and cases in which foreigners or citizens of different states were parties.
There is no separate judiciary, or police force, or civil service, nor any separate departments of general government.
Under the guidance of Judges John Jay, Marshall, and Joseph Story, the judiciary from 1790 to 1835 had followed the Federalist loose construction methods of interpreting the constitution.
Other legislation provided for the organization of a judiciary, a supreme court, the enactment of a code of civil procedure, the establishment of a bureau of forestry, a health department, and an agricultural bureau and a bureau of constabulary, made up of native soldiers officered by white men.
Under the Japanese regime the judiciary and the executive were rigidly separated.
Propositions to establish the judiciary on a more permanent tenure were also voted down in 1814, 1822, 1857 and 1870, and the state still elects its judges for two years' terms. On its own suggestion, the council of censors was abolished in 1870 and the present method of amending the constitution was adopted.
In 1820 Webster took an important part in the convention called to revise the constitution of Massachusetts, his arguments in favour of removing the religious test, in favour of retaining property representation in the Senate, and in favour of increasing the independence of the judiciary, being especially notable.
Facing the judiciary building is an heroic statue in bronze of Kamehameha the Great., About 2 m.
As chairman of the judiciary committee, he brought forward a number of measures for the improvement of judicial procedure, and in May 1826 joined with Benton in presenting a report on executive patronage.
The state judiciary consists of a supreme court of six judges and a district court of fifty-three judges, from one to four in each of twenty districts.
The judiciary, transferred to the people the choice of many officers, state and local, who had been appointed by the governor or the legislature; and placed numerous restrictions on the law-making power of the legislature.
A constitutional convention met and proposed a new constitution in 1867, but every article was rejected by the people save one relating to the judiciary, which was adopted separately as an amendment in 1869.
The local judiciary includes the usual county and city judges, county surrogates and justices of the peace.
In 1733 a popular organ, the New York Weekly Journal, was established under John Peter Zenger (1697-1746), and in 1735 both the freedom of the press and a great advance toward the independence of the judiciary were the outcome of a famous libel suit against Zenger.
These three factorspopular election, limited terms and small salarieshave all tended to lower the character of the judiciary; and in not a few states the state judges are men of moderate abilities and limited learning, inferior (and sometimes conspicuously inferior) to the best of the men who practise before them.
The part played by the judiciary has at some moments been of special importance, while at others it has been little noticed.
There was to be, under this plan, an executive chosen by the national legislature, to be ineligible for a second term, to have general authority to execute the national laws and to have the executive rights vested in Congress by the Confederation; and the executive with a convenient number of the national judiciary was to compose a Council of Revision, with a veto power on acts of the national legislature and on the national legislature's vetoes of acts of state legislatures - but the national legislature might pass bills (or vetoes of state legislation) over the action of the Council of Revision.
Returning to Massachusetts, he spoke and wrote in opposition to its ratification, and although not a member of the convention called to pass upon it, he laid before this convention, by request, his reasons for opposing it, among them being that the constitution contained no bill of rights, that the executive would unduly influence the legislative branch of the government, and that the judiciary would be oppressive.
A learned jurist, he contributed during the Constituent Assembly to the organization of the judiciary of France.
In 1907 there was a serious clash between the state authorities and the Federal judiciary, arising from an act of the legislature of that year which fixed the maximum railway fare at 21 cents a mile and imposed enormous fines for .its violation.
The expenditure is largely on reproductive works (railways, harbours, post office, &c.), on the judiciary and police, education and military defence.
In 1803 he was again elected to the governor's council, and in 1807, on the reorganization of the Connecticut judiciary, was appointed chief justice of the new Supreme Court.
The constitutional changes since 18 4 6 affect principally the judiciary and cities.
The judiciary consists of a court of appeals, circuit courts, quarterly courts, county courts, justice of the peace courts, police courts and fiscal courts.
The Judiciary Act of 1789 (as amended by subsequent legislation) provides for the appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States of a final judgment or decree in any suit rendered in the highest court of a state in which a decision in the suit could be had where is drawn in question the validity of a treaty or statute for an authority exercised under the United States, and the decision is against their validity; or where is drawn in question the validity of a statute of, or an authority exercised under, any state, on the ground of their being repugnant to the Constitution, treaties or laws of the United States, and the decision is in favor of their validity; or where any title, right, privilege or immunity is claimed under the Constitution, or any treaty or statute of, or commission held or authority exercised under the United States, and the decision is against the title, right, privilege or immunity specially set up or claimed by either party under the Constitution, treaty, statute, commission or authority.
In addition to the prerogatives commonly invested in his office, the president is authorized to supervise the judiciary, to nominate candidates for the higher ecclesiastical offices, to intervene in the enforcement of ecclesiastical decrees, papal bulls, &c., to exercise supervisory police powers, and to appoint the intendants of provinces and the governors of departments, who in turn appoint the sub-delegates and inspectors of subordinate political divisions.
The constitution of the courts is based on the example of the English judiciary, and the rules of evidence and procedure are practically the same in both criminal and civil cases as in England.
Here he became the recognized Democratic leader and in 1879-1881 was chairman of the judiciary committee.
Other prominent structures are the U.S. government and the judiciary buildings, the latter connected with the capitol by a stone terrace, the city hall, the county court house, the union station, the board of trade, the soldiers' memorial hall (with a seating capacity of about 4500), and several office buildings.
Above all, there was no dividing 'line between the judiciary and the administrative functions.
He appeared personally before successive legislative committees, and in 1846 published a pamphlet, "The Reorganization of the Judiciary," which had its influence in persuading the New York State Constitutional Convention of that year to report in favour of a codification of the laws.
Congress neglected to pass certain laws which were required by the constitution, and which, as regards municipal autonomy, independence of the judiciary, and congressional representation of minority parties, were intended to make impossible the abuses of centralized government that had characterized Spanish administration.
When conditions so changed that government could free itself from its dependence on the baron, feudalism disappeared as the organization of society; when a professional class arose to form the judiciary, when the increased circulation of money made regular taxation possible and enabled the government to buy military and other services, and when better means of intercommunication and the growth of common ideas made a wide centralization possible and likely to be permanent.
Each has its own documentary constitution; its legislature of two elective houses; its executive, consisting of a governor and other officials; its judiciary, whose decisions are final, except in cases involving Federal law; its system of local government and local taxation; its revenue, system of taxation, and debts; its body of private civil and criminal law and procedure; its rules of citizenship, which may admit persons to be voters in state and national elections under conditions differing from those prevailing in other states.
Besides these direct services imposed upon the states, each state is of course practically limited in its legislative and executive action by the power of the Federal judiciary (in the exercise of its function of interpreting the Constitution) to declare invalid laws passed or acts done inconsistent with the Federal Constitution, or with statutes passed by the Federal legislature within the scope of its authority under the Constitution.
He considered as a practical middle ground changing the basis of representation in Congress from states to population; giving the national government "positive and complete authority in all cases which require uniformity"; giving it a negative on all state laws, a power which might best be vested in the Senate, a comparatively permanent body; electing the lower house, and the more numerous, for a short term; providing for a national executive, for extending the national supremacy over the judiciary and the militia, for a council to revise all laws, and for an express statement of the right of coercion; and finally, obtaining the ratification of a new constitutional instrument from the people, and not merely from the legislatures.
The effect of the act was to impose upon the judges under severe sanction the duty of protecting personal liberty in the case of criminal charges and of securing speedy trial upon such charges when legally framed; and the improvement of their tenure of office at the revolution, coupled with the veto put by the Bill of Rights on excessive bail, gave the judicature the independence and authority necessary to enable them to keep the executive within the law and to restrain administrative development of the scope or penalties of the criminal law; and this power of the judiciary to control the executive, coupled with the limitations on the right to set up "act of state" as an excuse for infringing individual liberty is the special characteristic of English constitutional law.
The Bolivian judiciary consists of a national supreme court, eight superior district courts, lower district courts, and juzgados de instrucciOn for the investigation and preparation of cases.
A royal decree, dated February 1891, established three classes of prisons: judiciary prisons, for persons awaiting examination or persons sentenced to arrest, detention or seclusion for less than six months; penitentiaries of various kinds (ergastoli, case di reclusione, detenzione or custodia), for criminals condemned to long terms of imprisonment; and reformatories, for criminals under age and vagabonds.
The constitution of 1894 made further important changes in the judiciary and in the government of cities.
The judiciary holds a place of high importance, because it is the proper interpreter of the will of the people expressed in the supreme law, the Federal Constitution, which the people have enacted.