When an apostle was about to be chosen as successor to Judas, the people were invited to take part in the election;"and when deacons were about to be appointed the Apostles asked the people to make the choice.
The oppression of Antiochus led to a revolt of the Jews under the leadership of the Maccabees, and Judas Maccabaeus succeeded in capturing Jerusalem after severe fighting, but could not get The sites shown on the plan are tentative, and cannot be regarded as certain; see Nehemiah ii.
The indignant friar would hear of no compromise: "Judas," he cried, "sold Christ for 30 pence; and your highnesses wish to sell Him again for 300,000 ducats."
This Messianic expectation had been a fermenting leaven since the great days of Judas Maccabaeus.
Whether led by this Mattathias or not, certain Jews fled into the wilderness and found a leader in Judas Maccabaeus his reputed son, the first of the five Asmonean (Hasmonean) brethren.
Apollonius, the commander of the Syrian garrison in Jerusalem, and Seron the commander of the army in Syria, came in turn against Judas and his bands and were defeated.
Judas was at Emmaus; " the men of the citadel " guided a detachment of the Syrian troops to his encampment by night.
Judas gathered what men he could and joined battle.
The siege was raised, more probably in consequence of the death of Antiochus Epiphanes than because Judas had gained any real victory.
Judas entered Jerusalem, the citadel of which was still occupied by a Syrian garrison, and the Temple was re-dedicated on the 25th of Kislev (164 B.e.).
Judas and his zealots were thus able to maintain their prominence and gradually to increase their power.
Judas avenged them by burning the harbour and the shipping, and set to work to bring into Judaea all such communities of Jews who had kept themselves separate from their heathen neighbours.
In 163 Lysias led another expedition against these disturbers of the king's peace and defeated Judas at Bethzachariah.
The Jewish refugees had turned the balance, and so Judas became strategus of Judaea, whilst Menelaus was put to death.
Judas and the Asmoneans were usurpers, who owed their title to Lysias.
Judas had won for them religious freedom: but the Temple required a descendant of Aaron for priest and he was come.
But his first act was to seize and slay sixty of them: so it was clear to Judas at any rate, if not also to the Assideans who survived, that political independence was necessary if the religion was to be secure.
In response to his complaints Nicanor was appointed governor of Judaea with power to treat with Judas, It appears that the two became friends at first, but fresh orders from Antioch made Nicanor, guilty of treachery in the eyes of Judas's partisans.
Warned by the change of his friend's manner Judas fled.
Nicanor threatened to destroy the Temple if the priests would not deliver Judas into his hands.
The day was known afterwards as Nicanor's day, for he was found dead on the field (Capharsalama) by the victorious followers of Judas (13th of Adar, March 161 B.C.).
After this victory Judas made an alliance with the people of Rome, who had no love for Demetrius his enemy, nor any intention of putting their professions of friendship into practice.
Bacchides and Alcimus returned meanwhile into the land of Judah; at Elasa " Judas fell and the rest fled " (i Macc. ix.
Elsewhere the occasion tempted many to play at being king - Judas, son of Hezekiah, in Galilee; Simon, one of the king's slaves, in Peraea.
But Judas the Galilean, with a Pharisee named Sadduc (Sadduk), endeavoured to incite them to rebellion in the name of religion.
The Judas legend, however, never really became popular, whereas that of Oedipus was handed down both orally and in written national tales (Albanian, Finnish, Cypriote).
Diederichs, "Russische Verwandte der Legende von Gregor auf dem Stein and der Sage von Judas Ischariot," in Russische Revue (1880); S.
Pope John, who had excommunicated Bruce, was addressed by the parliament of Arbroath in April 1320 in a letter which compared Bruce to a Joshua or Judas Maccabaeus, who had wrought the salvation of his people, and declared they fought "not for glory, truth or honour, but for that liberty which no virtuous man will survive."
ASMONEUS, or Asamonaeus (so Josephus), great-grandfather of Mattathias, the father of Judas Maccabaeus.
They believed that Cain derived his existence from the superior power, and Abel from the inferior power, and that in this respect he was the first of a line which included Esau, Korah, the Sodomites and Judas Iscariot.
I-3) .1 True to their antecedents, the Ammonites, with some of the neighbouring tribes, did their utmost to resist and check the revival of the Jewish power under Judas Maccabaeus (1 Macc. v.
Gospel of Judas Iscariot.
Kennett's Schweich Lecture (1909), The Composition of the Book of Isaiah in thelLight of Archaeology and History, an interesting attempt at a synthesis of results, is a brightly written b'ut scholarly sketch of the growth of the book of Isaiah, which went on till thegreat success of the Jews under Judas Maccabaeus.
The Syriac has in turn become the parent of the Arabic, Armenian and Ethiopic-- possibly also of the Greek and Slavonic versions.'° Another deeply interesting Syriac Apocryphon is the Acts of Judas Thomas (i.e.
Judas the Twin), which is included in the collection of Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles.
Among its peculiarities is the fact that Judas Thomas is regarded as the twin brother of Christ.
11 Of the Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles there is the well-known edition and translation by Wright (London, 1871); the Acts of Judas were re-edited by Bedjan in the 3rd volume of Acta martyrum et sanctorum (Paris, 1892); of the Hymn of the Soul there is a fresh edition and translation by A.
It was instituted in 165 B.C. in commemoration of, and thanksgiving for, the purification of the temple at Jerusalem on this day by Judas Maccabaeus after its pollution by Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria, who in 168 B.C. set up a pagan altar to Zeus Olympius.
Montanus claimed to have a prophetic calling in the very same sense as Agabus, Judas, Silas, the daughters of Philip, Quadratus and Ammia, or as Hermas at Rome.
But he had virtu as well as fortuna; and on his tombstone it was written that he was "a second Judas Maccabaeus, whom Kedar and Egypt, Dan and Damascus dreaded."
The historical situation depicted must then fall within the lifetime of this Judas, whose two grandchildren Zoker and James (Hegesippus ap. Phil.
These two grandsons of Judas thereafter " lived until the time of Trajan," ruling the churches " because they had (thus) been witnesses (martyrs) and were also relatives of the Lord."
Failing this, the next most imposing was " Judas, the brother of James."
Judas is conceived as cherishing the intention of discussing for the benefit of the Christian world (for no mere local church is addressed) the subject of " our common salvation " (the much desiderated authoritative definition of the orthodox faith), but diverted from this purpose by the growth of heresy.
15, where Judas Maccabeus fell, is possibly the rising ground on which the village stands.
- xvii.) (j) Solemn washing of the disciples' feet; the beloved disciple; designates the traitor; Judas goes forth, it is night (xiii.
Occasionally he is didactic, as in Worek Judaszow (The Bag of Judas) and Victoria deorum, where, under the allegory of the gods of Olympus, he represents the struggles of parties in Poland, not without severely satirizing the nobility and ecclesiastics.
Victories of Judas Maccabaeus over the generals of Antiochus (I Macc. iii.-iv.).
Death of Judas Maccabaeus (1 Macc. ix.
Jonathan, younger brother of Judas, leader of the loyal Jews (I Macc. ix.