When an apostle was about to be chosen as successor to Judas, the people were invited to take part in the election;"and when deacons were about to be appointed the Apostles asked the people to make the choice.
The oppression of Antiochus led to a revolt of the Jews under the leadership of the Maccabees, and Judas Maccabaeus succeeded in capturing Jerusalem after severe fighting, but could not get The sites shown on the plan are tentative, and cannot be regarded as certain; see Nehemiah ii.
This Messianic expectation had been a fermenting leaven since the great days of Judas Maccabaeus.
Whether led by this Mattathias or not, certain Jews fled into the wilderness and found a leader in Judas Maccabaeus his reputed son, the first of the five Asmonean (Hasmonean) brethren.
Apollonius, the commander of the Syrian garrison in Jerusalem, and Seron the commander of the army in Syria, came in turn against Judas and his bands and were defeated.
Judas was at Emmaus; " the men of the citadel " guided a detachment of the Syrian troops to his encampment by night.
Judas gathered what men he could and joined battle.
The siege was raised, more probably in consequence of the death of Antiochus Epiphanes than because Judas had gained any real victory.
Judas entered Jerusalem, the citadel of which was still occupied by a Syrian garrison, and the Temple was re-dedicated on the 25th of Kislev (164 B.e.).
Judas and his zealots were thus able to maintain their prominence and gradually to increase their power.
Judas avenged them by burning the harbour and the shipping, and set to work to bring into Judaea all such communities of Jews who had kept themselves separate from their heathen neighbours.
In 163 Lysias led another expedition against these disturbers of the king's peace and defeated Judas at Bethzachariah.
The Jewish refugees had turned the balance, and so Judas became strategus of Judaea, whilst Menelaus was put to death.
Judas and the Asmoneans were usurpers, who owed their title to Lysias.
Judas had won for them religious freedom: but the Temple required a descendant of Aaron for priest and he was come.
But his first act was to seize and slay sixty of them: so it was clear to Judas at any rate, if not also to the Assideans who survived, that political independence was necessary if the religion was to be secure.
In response to his complaints Nicanor was appointed governor of Judaea with power to treat with Judas, It appears that the two became friends at first, but fresh orders from Antioch made Nicanor, guilty of treachery in the eyes of Judas's partisans.
Warned by the change of his friend's manner Judas fled.
Nicanor threatened to destroy the Temple if the priests would not deliver Judas into his hands.
The day was known afterwards as Nicanor's day, for he was found dead on the field (Capharsalama) by the victorious followers of Judas (13th of Adar, March 161 B.C.).
After this victory Judas made an alliance with the people of Rome, who had no love for Demetrius his enemy, nor any intention of putting their professions of friendship into practice.
Bacchides and Alcimus returned meanwhile into the land of Judah; at Elasa " Judas fell and the rest fled " (i Macc. ix.
Jonathan, who succeeded his brother Judas, was captain of a band of fugitive outlaws.
Elsewhere the occasion tempted many to play at being king - Judas, son of Hezekiah, in Galilee; Simon, one of the king's slaves, in Peraea.
But Judas the Galilean, with a Pharisee named Sadduc (Sadduk), endeavoured to incite them to rebellion in the name of religion.
The Judas legend, however, never really became popular, whereas that of Oedipus was handed down both orally and in written national tales (Albanian, Finnish, Cypriote).
Diederichs, "Russische Verwandte der Legende von Gregor auf dem Stein and der Sage von Judas Ischariot," in Russische Revue (1880); S.
Pope John, who had excommunicated Bruce, was addressed by the parliament of Arbroath in April 1320 in a letter which compared Bruce to a Joshua or Judas Maccabaeus, who had wrought the salvation of his people, and declared they fought "not for glory, truth or honour, but for that liberty which no virtuous man will survive."
ASMONEUS, or Asamonaeus (so Josephus), great-grandfather of Mattathias, the father of Judas Maccabaeus.
They believed that Cain derived his existence from the superior power, and Abel from the inferior power, and that in this respect he was the first of a line which included Esau, Korah, the Sodomites and Judas Iscariot.
Gospel of Judas Iscariot.
JUDAS ISCARIOT ('Iol as IaKapcc'evis or IaKapui)0), in the Bible, the son of Simon Iscariot (John vi.
In sacred art Judas Iscariot is generally treated as the very incarnation of treachery, ingratitude and impiety.
At his birth Judas was enclosed in a chest and flung into the sea; picked up on a foreign shore, he was educated at the court until a murder committed in a moment of passion compelled his flight.
This Judas legend, as given by Jacobus de Voragine, obtained no small popularity; and it is to be found in various shapes in every important literature of Europe.
According to Daub (Judas Ischariot, oder Betrachtungen Tiber das Bose im Verhaltniss zum Guten, 1816, 1818) Judas was "an incarnation of the devil," to whom "mercy and blessedness are alike impossible."
The popular hatred of Judas has found strange symbolical expression in various parts of Christendom.
Not a few Christian prophets a y e known to us by name: as Agabus, Judas, and Silas in Jerusalem; Barnabas, Simon Niger, &c., in Antioch; in Asia Minor, the daughters of Philip, Quadratus, Ammia, Polycarp, Melito, Montanus, Maximilla and Priscilla; in Rome, Hermas; among the followers of Basilides, Barkabbas and Barkoph; in the community of Apelles, Philumene, &c. Lucian tells us that the impostor Peregrinus Proteus, in the time of Antoninus Pius, figured as a prophet in the Christian churches of Syria.
But the quotations and references in Aphraates, Ephraem and the Acts of Judas Thomas show that it was known, even if not often used.
Victories of Judas Maccabaeus over the generals of Antiochus (I Macc. iii.-iv.).
Death of Judas Maccabaeus (1 Macc. ix.
Jonathan, younger brother of Judas, leader of the loyal Jews (I Macc. ix.