So Judaism survived once more the destruction of its central sanctuary.
This supreme official, who was destined ultimately to take the place of the king in the church-nation of post-exilian Judaism, is mentioned for the first time in Zech.
In the country-side of Judaea, Judaism - and no longer Hellenism - was propagated by force.
It suggests in every deed a personal but limited God, or a number of Gods - " Religions of spiritual Individuality," including, along with " Judaism," the anthropomorphic religions of Greece and Rome.
(b) Eschatology in the Judaism of the Greek period began to assume a new form.
Finally (c), in the so-called " post-exilic " period, religion and life were reorganized under the influence of a new spirit; relations with Samaria were broken off, and Judaism took its definite character, perhaps about the middle or close of the 5th century.
The characteristic of the 18th and 19th centuries is the endeavour, connected with the name of Moses Mendelssohn, to bring Judaism more into relation with external learning, and in using the Hebrew language to purify tend- and develop it in accordance with the biblical standard.
A common ground for Judaism and Samaritanism is obvious, and it is in this obscure age that it is to be sought.
As Graetz says: "To Jeremiah and Mar Samuel Judaism owes the possibility of existence in a foreign country."
But it is just to remember that without the stern discipline of the law the community of the second temple could hardly have escaped dissolution, and that Judaism alone preserved for Christianity the hard-won achievements of the prophets.3 4.
For Greece and Rome, where the instructions as to ritual were not embodied in the elaborate codes handed down in Hinduism or Judaism, our material is far less complete.
But in Judaism monotheistic conceptions reigned supreme, and the Satan of Jewish belief as opposed to God stops short of the dualism of Persian religion.
It contains in fact the history itself in two forms: (a) from the creation of man to the fall of Judah (Genesis-2 Kings), which is supplemented and continued further - (b) to the foundation of Judaism in the 5th century B.C. (Chronicles - Ezra-Nehemiah).
The course of human history is regarded by those writers who are most concerned to refute Judaism as a progressive divine education.
9, ro, that God would visit the sins of the fathers upon the children, and it lived on in later Judaism under exaggerated forms. The hopes of the individual Jew were based on the piety of holy ancestors.
It is essentially the path which may be summed up in the word Judaism, though, as will be shown in the sequel, Judaism came to include many other factors.
The statement, however, remains virtually true, since Judaism is mainly constituted by the body of legal precepts called the Torah, and, moreover, by the postexilian Torah.
In later Judaism Sammael is the equivalent of Satan.
Their history may be divided into three great periods: (1) That covered by the Old Testament to the foundation of Judaism in the Persian age, (2) that of the Greek and Roman domination to the destruction of Jerusalem, and (3) that of the Diaspora or Dispersion to the present day.
The prominence of Jerusalem, the centre of post-exilic Judaism, necessarily invited reflection.
They look back from the age when half-suppressed hostility with Samaria had broken out, and when an exclusive Judaism had been formed.
Upon this blank period before the foundation of Judaism (§§ 21, 23) much light is also thrown by another body of evidence.
The Graf-Wellhausen hypothesis, that the hierarchical law in its complete form in the Pentateuch stands at the close and not at the beginning of biblical history, that this mature Judaism was the fruit of the 5th century B.C. and not a divinely appointed institution at the exodus (nearly ten centuries previously), has won the recognition of almost all Old Testament scholars.
The work represented in Nehemiah and Ezra, and put into action by the supporters of an exclusive Judaism, certainly won the day, and their hands have left their impress upon the historical traditions.
His whole kingdom was to be unified; Judaism was an eccentricity and as such doomed to extinction.
So " the Pious " achieved the object for which presumably they took up arms. The re-establishment of Judaism, which alone of current religions was intolerant of a rival, seems to have excited the jealousy of their neighbours who had embraced the Greek way of life.
This prosperity and the apparent security of Judaism led to a breach between Hyrcanus and his spiritual directors, the Pharisees.
This development of Judaism was eminently to the mind of the rulers; and Herod did much to encourage it.
The great world (as we know it) took small note of Judaism even when Jews converted its women to their faith; but now the Jews as a nation refused to bow before the present god of the civilized world.
He also published works on the Last Days of the Life of Jesus, on Judaism in the Time of Christ, on John of Damascus (1879) and an Examination of the Vatican Dogma in the Light of Patristic Exegesis of the New Testament.
After the capture of Rome by the Italian troops in 1870 Edgar Mortara had the opportunity of reverting to Judaism, but he refused to do so, and not long afterwards became an Augustinian.
He conciliated his subjects by his deference to the observances of Judaism, and - the case is probably typical of his policy - he joined in protesting, when Pilate set up a votive shield in the palace of Herod within the sacred city.
There can be little 1 We shall have to note the emergence of the doctrine of the resurrection of the righteous in later Judaism, which is obviously a fresh contribution of permanent value to Hebrew doctrine.
The present outlook was hopeless, but in the enlarged horizon of time as well as space the thoughts of some of the most spiritual minds in Judaism were directed to the transcendent and ultimate.
For Hinduism and later Judaism we possess a wealth of material on which to base a comparative study of the forms of sacrifice; a form of this - animal sacrifice in the Vedas - has been analysed by MM.
Of Portugal to set up the Inquisition in Goa to repress Judaism, but the tribunal was not set up until 1560.
The endeavour to bring Judaism into relation with the modern world and to change the current impressions about Jews by making their teaching accessible to the rest of the world, is connected chiefly with the names of Z.
Individual Geonim produced valuable works (of which later), but what is perhaps most important from the point of view of the development of Judaism is the literature of their Responsa or answers to questions, chiefly on halakhic matters, addressed to them from various countries.
In the Geonic period there came into prominence the sect of the Karaites (Bene migra, " followers of the Scripture", the Protestants of Judaism, who rejected rabbinical authority, basing their doctrine and practice exclusively on The g P Y ICaraltes.
While the schools of Babylonia were flourishing as the religious head of Judaism, the West, and especially Spain under Moorish rule, was becoming the home of Jewish scholarship. On the breaking of the schools many of the fugitives fled o- g up Y g?
(3) The phenomena might be explained solely on the basis of Judaism (von Soden, Peake).
Even the worship of angels, not only as mediators of revelation and visions, but also as cosmical beings, is a wellknown fact in late Judaism (Apoc. Bar.