This was an original contribution to the history of the Jews and Judaism in the time of Christ, and has been much used by later writers on the subject (e.g.
He also published works on the Last Days of the Life of Jesus, on Judaism in the Time of Christ, on John of Damascus (1879) and an Examination of the Vatican Dogma in the Light of Patristic Exegesis of the New Testament.
As Graetz says: "To Jeremiah and Mar Samuel Judaism owes the possibility of existence in a foreign country."
For he maintained that Judaism was less a "divine need, than a revealed life."
Modern reform in Judaism is parting to some extent from this conception, but it still holds good even among the liberals.
But it is just to remember that without the stern discipline of the law the community of the second temple could hardly have escaped dissolution, and that Judaism alone preserved for Christianity the hard-won achievements of the prophets.3 4.
P. 763; cp. id., Studies in Judaism, pp. 296 sqq.).
Charles, A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life in Israel, in Judaism and in Christianity (1899); E.
He wrote The Religion of Israel (1882); Quotations from the Old Testament in the New Testament (1884); Judaism and Christianity (1890); and the Book of Proverbs (1899) in the "International Critical Commentary"; and edited a translation of Erdmann's commentary on Samuel (1877) in Lange's commentaries; Murray's Origin of the Psalms (1880); and, in Haupt's Sacred Books of the Old Testament, the Book of Ezekiel (Hebrew text and English version, 1899).
It suggests in every deed a personal but limited God, or a number of Gods - " Religions of spiritual Individuality," including, along with " Judaism," the anthropomorphic religions of Greece and Rome.
The course of human history is regarded by those writers who are most concerned to refute Judaism as a progressive divine education.
Ramsay, Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, and Church in the Roman Empire), but also to the Judaism of the Diaspora.
(3) The phenomena might be explained solely on the basis of Judaism (von Soden, Peake).
Even the worship of angels, not only as mediators of revelation and visions, but also as cosmical beings, is a wellknown fact in late Judaism (Apoc. Bar.
If we resort solely to Judaism for explanation, it must be a Judaism of the Diaspora type.
Schecher, Studies in Judaism, second series, pp. 251,seq.; Jewish Encyclopedia, viii.
Individual Geonim produced valuable works (of which later), but what is perhaps most important from the point of view of the development of Judaism is the literature of their Responsa or answers to questions, chiefly on halakhic matters, addressed to them from various countries.
In the Geonic period there came into prominence the sect of the Karaites (Bene migra, " followers of the Scripture", the Protestants of Judaism, who rejected rabbinical authority, basing their doctrine and practice exclusively on The g P Y ICaraltes.
While the schools of Babylonia were flourishing as the religious head of Judaism, the West, and especially Spain under Moorish rule, was becoming the home of Jewish scholarship. On the breaking of the schools many of the fugitives fled o- g up Y g?
Of Portugal to set up the Inquisition in Goa to repress Judaism, but the tribunal was not set up until 1560.
For Greece and Rome, where the instructions as to ritual were not embodied in the elaborate codes handed down in Hinduism or Judaism, our material is far less complete.
The characteristic of the 18th and 19th centuries is the endeavour, connected with the name of Moses Mendelssohn, to bring Judaism more into relation with external learning, and in using the Hebrew language to purify tend- and develop it in accordance with the biblical standard.
9, ro, that God would visit the sins of the fathers upon the children, and it lived on in later Judaism under exaggerated forms. The hopes of the individual Jew were based on the piety of holy ancestors.
It is essentially the path which may be summed up in the word Judaism, though, as will be shown in the sequel, Judaism came to include many other factors.
The statement, however, remains virtually true, since Judaism is mainly constituted by the body of legal precepts called the Torah, and, moreover, by the postexilian Torah.
This supreme official, who was destined ultimately to take the place of the king in the church-nation of post-exilian Judaism, is mentioned for the first time in Zech.
(b) Eschatology in the Judaism of the Greek period began to assume a new form.
But in Judaism monotheistic conceptions reigned supreme, and the Satan of Jewish belief as opposed to God stops short of the dualism of Persian religion.
In later Judaism Sammael is the equivalent of Satan.
Their history may be divided into three great periods: (1) That covered by the Old Testament to the foundation of Judaism in the Persian age, (2) that of the Greek and Roman domination to the destruction of Jerusalem, and (3) that of the Diaspora or Dispersion to the present day.
It contains in fact the history itself in two forms: (a) from the creation of man to the fall of Judah (Genesis-2 Kings), which is supplemented and continued further - (b) to the foundation of Judaism in the 5th century B.C. (Chronicles - Ezra-Nehemiah).
Finally (c), in the so-called " post-exilic " period, religion and life were reorganized under the influence of a new spirit; relations with Samaria were broken off, and Judaism took its definite character, perhaps about the middle or close of the 5th century.
The prominence of Jerusalem, the centre of post-exilic Judaism, necessarily invited reflection.
They look back from the age when half-suppressed hostility with Samaria had broken out, and when an exclusive Judaism had been formed.
A common ground for Judaism and Samaritanism is obvious, and it is in this obscure age that it is to be sought.
Upon this blank period before the foundation of Judaism (§§ 21, 23) much light is also thrown by another body of evidence.
The Graf-Wellhausen hypothesis, that the hierarchical law in its complete form in the Pentateuch stands at the close and not at the beginning of biblical history, that this mature Judaism was the fruit of the 5th century B.C. and not a divinely appointed institution at the exodus (nearly ten centuries previously), has won the recognition of almost all Old Testament scholars.
The work represented in Nehemiah and Ezra, and put into action by the supporters of an exclusive Judaism, certainly won the day, and their hands have left their impress upon the historical traditions.
Again, although some may have desired a self-contained community opposed to the heathen neighbours of Jerusalem, the story of Jonah implicitly contends against the attempt of Judaism to close its doors.
Many features gain in significance as the account of the Exodus, the foundation of Israel, is read in the light of the age when, after the advent of a new element from Babylonia, the Pentateuch assumed its present shape; it must suffice to mention the supremacy of the Aaronite priests and the glorification of uncompromising 1 An instructive account of Judaism in the early post-exilic age on critical lines (from the Jewish standpoint) is given by C. G.
His whole kingdom was to be unified; Judaism was an eccentricity and as such doomed to extinction.
All the religious rites of Judaism were proscribed and the neighbouring Greek cities were requested to enforce the prohibition upon their Jewish citizens.
In the country-side of Judaea, Judaism - and no longer Hellenism - was propagated by force.
So " the Pious " achieved the object for which presumably they took up arms. The re-establishment of Judaism, which alone of current religions was intolerant of a rival, seems to have excited the jealousy of their neighbours who had embraced the Greek way of life.
This prosperity and the apparent security of Judaism led to a breach between Hyrcanus and his spiritual directors, the Pharisees.
This verdict suggests that the Sadducees, with whom he allied himself, had learned to affect some show of Judaism in Judaea.
This development of Judaism was eminently to the mind of the rulers; and Herod did much to encourage it.
Towards the end of Herod's life two rabbis attempted to uphold by physical force the cardinal dogma of Judaism, which prohibited the use of images.
The great world (as we know it) took small note of Judaism even when Jews converted its women to their faith; but now the Jews as a nation refused to bow before the present god of the civilized world.
So Judaism survived once more the destruction of its central sanctuary.