Ritual flagellation existed among the Jews, and, according to Buxtorf (Synagoga judaica, Basel, 1603), was one of the ceremonies of the day of the Great Pardon.
, pp. 230 sqq.) has however been questioned by Willrich, Judaica, 35-39 (see Cheyne, Ency.
Zunz; Jewish Encyclopedia passim; publications of Jewish societies, such as Etudes Juives, Jewish historical societies of England and America, German historical commission, Julius Barasch society (Rumania), Societas Litteraria Hungarico-Judaica, the Viennese communal publications, and many others to which may be added the 20 vols.
Gross, Gallia Judaica (1897), &c. (I.
601 f.; Willrich, Juden and Griechen (1895), Judaica (1900); Hastings' Dict.
101 -130; Furst, Bibliotheca Judaica, i.