The Idumaean Antipater was appointed by Julius Caesar procurator of Judaea, Samaria and Galilee, as a reward for services rendered against Pompey.
Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, his son, served during the third Mithradatic War (74-61 B.C.) as quaestor to Pompey, by whom he was sent to Judaea to settle the quarrel between Hyrcanus and Aristobulus.
Simon then constructed a new citadel, north of the Temple, to take the place of the Acra, and established in Judaea the Asmonean dynasty, which lasted for nearly a century, when the Roman republic began to make its influence felt in Syria.
On his arrival he reinstated Hyrcanus in the high-priesthood at Jerusalem, suppressed revolts, introduced important changes in the government of Judaea, and rebuilt several towns.
Finally the Deutero-Isaiah conveyed to captive Israel the message of Yahweh's unceasing love and care, and the certainty of their return to Judaea and the restoration of the national prosperity which Ezekiel had already announced in the earlier period of the exile.
When Antiochus finally evacuated Egypt in obedience to the decree of Rome, he thought that Judaea was in revolt.
In the country-side of Judaea, Judaism - and no longer Hellenism - was propagated by force.
Judas avenged them by burning the harbour and the shipping, and set to work to bring into Judaea all such communities of Jews who had kept themselves separate from their heathen neighbours.
The Jewish refugees had turned the balance, and so Judas became strategus of Judaea, whilst Menelaus was put to death.
In response to his complaints Nicanor was appointed governor of Judaea with power to treat with Judas, It appears that the two became friends at first, but fresh orders from Antioch made Nicanor, guilty of treachery in the eyes of Judas's partisans.
Bacchides occupied Judaea and made a chain of forts.
The garrison of the Akra had been starved by a close blockade into submission, and beyond the boundaries of Judaea " he took Joppa for a haven and made himself master of Gazara and Bethsura."
His great achievement was the conquest of a part of Ituraea, which he added to Judaea and whose inhabitants he compelled to accept Judaism.
Aretas retired from Judaea; and Aristobulus pursued the retreating army.
Others shared this conviction: Strabo speaks of embassies from Egypt and Judaea bearing presents - one deposited in the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus bore the inscription of Alexander, the king of the Jews.
The civil war was renewed; but Aulus Gabinius, the proconsul, soon crushed the pretender and set up an aristocracy in Judaea with Hyrcanus as guardian of the Temple.
Two years later Julius Caesar made himself master of Rome and despatched the captive Aristobulus with two legions to win Judaea (49 B.C.).
Archelaus received the lion's share: for ten years he was ethnarch of Idumaea, Judaea and Samaria, with a yearly revenue of 600 talents.
So the Jews of Judaea obtained the settlement for which they had pleaded at the death of Herod; and some of them beg2 n to regret it at once.
It seems that the Zealots made more headwa y in Galilee than in Judaea - so much so that the terms Galilean and Zealot are practically interchangeable.
The crucifixion of Jesus was sanctioned by Pontius Pilate, who was procurator of Judaea A.D.
When he marched against Aretas, his army with their standards did not enter Judaea at all; but he himself went up to Jerusalem for the feast and, on receipt of the news that Tiberius was dead, administered to the Jews the oath of allegiance to Caligula.
So there was once more a king of Judaea, and a king who observed the tradition of the Pharisees and protected the Jewish religion.
Claudius intended that Agrippa's young son should succeed to the kingdom; but he was overruled by his advisers, and Judaea was taken over once more by Roman procurators.
Festus found Judaea infested with robbers and the sicarii, who mingled with the crowds at the feasts and stabbed their enemies with the daggers (sicae) from which their name was derived.
- With the failure in 135 of the attempt led by Barcochebas to free Judaea from Roman domination a new era begins in the history of the Jews.
The contemplative asceticism of the Essenes of Judaea may be mentioned, and, somewhat later, the life of the Therapeutae on the shores of Lake Moeris.
He crushed the rebellion of Timarchus in Media and reduced Judaea to new subjection.
Thereafter it broadens out and becomes the high table-land of Galilee, Samaria and Judaea, and gradually sinks into the plateau of north Sinai.
(I) Filistin (Palestine), consisting of Judaea, Samaria and a portion of the territory east of Jordan; its capital was Ramleh, Jerusalem ranking next.
He went with Nero's suite to Greece, and in 66 was appointed to conduct the war in Judaea, which was threatening general commotion throughout the East, owing to a widely spread notion in those parts that from Judaea were to come the future rulers of the world.
With the growing weakness and corruption of the Hasmonaean princes, and the alienation of a large part of the nation from their cause, the hope of a better kingship begins to appear in Judaea also; at first darkly shadowed forth in the Book of Enoch (chap. xc.), where the white steer, the future leader of God's herd after the deliverance from the heathen, stands in a certain contrast to the actual dynasty (the horned lambs); and then much more clearly, and for the first time with use of the name Messiah, in the Psalter of Solomon, the chief document of the protest of Pharisaism against its enemies the later Hasmonaeans.
Coming to Judaea, he entered the service of Pontius Pilate as page, and during this period committed the first two of the crimes which had been expressly foretold.
This cubit, or one nearly equal, was used in Judaea in the times of the kings, as the Siloam inscription names a distance of 1758 ft.
51 with the words, " It came to pass as the days of His assumption were coming to the full, He set His face firmly to go to Jerusalem," under which phrase the evangelist cannot have meant to include more than a few months, perhaps not more than a few weeks; so that even if the earlier and shorter half of the account, which describes a purely Galilean ministry (" Judaea " in iv.
44, if it is the true reading, means Judaea in the sense of Palestine), is to be spread over a longer period of time, the combined narrative can hardly have been planned on the scale of more than a single year.
After Agrippa's death Judaea was once more governed by procurators, of whom Cuspius Fadus and Tiberius Alexander ruled from A.D.
It is argued that " many years " cannot mean less than six or seven, so that St Paul must have been speaking at earliest in 58 or 59, and Felix will have left Judaea at earliest in 60 or 61.
54); he certainly supposes Felix to have been already governor of Samaria, and apparently of Judaea too, and only recognizes Cumanus as governor of Galilee; and Josephus, though he says nothing of this, and treats Cumanus as the sole procurator down to A.D.
Titius, C. Sentius Saturninus, and P. Quintilius Varus; and further, that when Judaea became a Roman province on the deposition of Archelaus in A.D.
19), employs against Marcion's denial of the true humanity of Christ the argument that it was well known that Sentius Saturninus carried out a census under Augustus in Judaea, by consulting which the family and relationships of Christ could have been discovered.
After the death of Galba (69), Mucianus and Vespasian (who was at the time in Judaea) both swore allegiance to Otho, but when the civil war broke out Mucianus persuaded Vespasian to take up arms against Vitellius, who had seized the throne.