These sums, together with the considerable amounts accruing from indulgences, jubilees, and special fees, vanished as quickly as they were received.
This increasing strictness is exemplified by the attitude of the Book of Jubilees (ii.
In the Book of Jubilees he is called mastema.
On apocalyptic generally the introductions to Charles's Book of Enoch, Apocalypse of Baruch, Ascension of Isaiah and Book of Jubilees, should be carefully noted.
Some appear written for the first time in the book of Jubilees, in " the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs " (both perhaps 2nd century B.C.) and in later sources; and although in Genesis the stories are now in a post-exilic setting (a stage earlier than Jubilees), the older portions may well belong to the 7th or 6th cent.
The " priestly " traditions of the creation and of the patriarchs mark a very distinct advance upon the earlier narratives, and appear in a further developed form in the still later book of Jubilees, or " Little Genesis," where they are used to demonstrate the pre-Mosaic antiquity of the priestly or Levitical institutions.
They could be, and indeed had been made more edifying; but the very noteworthy conservatism of even the last compiler or editor, in contrast to the re-shaping and re-writing of the material in the book of Jubilees, indicates that the Priestly spirit was not that of the whole community.
An interest in the past is not necessarily confined to any one age, and the critical view that the biblical history has been compiled from relatively late standpoints finds support in the still later treatment of the events - in Chronicles as contrasted with Samuel-Kings or in Jubilees as contrasted with Genesis.'
The influence of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs is still more apparent in the Pauline Epistles and the Gospels, and the same holds true of Jubilees and the Assumption of Moses, though in a very slight degree.
The Book of Jubilees was written in Hebrew by a Pharisee between the year of the accession of Hyrcanus to the high-priesthood in 135 and his breach with the Pharisees some years before his death in 105 B.C. Jubilees was translated into Greek and from Greek into Ethiopic and Latin.
Preserved in its entirety only in Ethiopic. Jubilees is the most advanced pre-Christian representative of the midrashic tendency, which was already at work in the Old Testament 1 and 2 Chronicles.
(For a fuller account see Jubilees, Book Of.) Paralipomena Jeremiae, or the Rest of the Words of Baruch.
8 Jubilees, viii.
The Book of Noah is mentioned in Jubilees x.
2, and Jubilees vii.
In the former passage of Jubilees the subject-matter leads to this identification, as well as the fact that Noah is represented as speaking in the first person, although throughout Jubilees it is the angel that speaks.
2; Jubilees vii.
The portion of this Hebrew work which is derived from the older work is reprinted in Charles's Ethiopic Version of the Hebrew Book of Jubilees, p. 179.
Before the Book of Jubilees, i.e.
Late tradition supposed that the migration was to escape Babylonian idolatry (Judith v., Jubilees xii.; cf.
The contemptuous hatred of Ben Sira, Ecclesiasticus 1.26, and the author of Jubilees xxiv.
The Old Testament says nothing about the origin of angels; but the Book of Jubilees and the Slavonic Enoch describe their creation; and, according to Col.
In the Book of Jubilees (1st century A.D.) the name of Seth's wife is given as Azura.
On the other hand, evidence such as that of the Book of Jubilees shows that the form of the text still fluctuated considerably as late as the 1st century A.D., so that we are forced to place the fixing of the text some time between the fall of Jerusalem and the production of Aquila's version.
Charles, Jubilees, p. 245 seq.); art.
"Extraordinary" jubilees are sometimes appointed on special occasions, e.g.
These are not so much jubilees in the ordinary sense as special grants of plenary indulgences for particular purposes (Indulgentiae plenariae in forma jubilaei).
The Year of Jubilee, in 1525, was unprecedented in its scant attendance, but the jubilees of 1575 and 1600 again saw great armies of pilgrims marching to Rome.
An enormous gap severs the pre-monarchical period from this age, and while the tribal schemes and tribal traditions can hardly be traced during the monarchies, the inclusion of Judah among the " sons " of Israel would not have originated when Judah and Israel were rival kingdoms. Yet the tribes survive in post-exilic literature and their traditions develop henceforth in Jubilees, Testament of the XII Patriarchs, &c.
In the Old Testament many laws in the Mosaic legislation are certainly post-Mosaic and the value of not a few narratives lies, not in their historical or biographical information, but in their treatment of law, ritual, custom, belief, &c. Later developments are exemplified in the pseudepigraphical literature, notably in the Book of Jubilees, and when we reach the Mishnah and Talmud, we have only the first of a new series of stages which, it may be said, culminate in the 16th-century Shulhan `Aruk, the great compendium of the then existing written and oral law.
Also the Book of Jubilees knows of secret written traditions containing regulations regarding sacrifices, &c., and Jacob hands over " all his books and the books of his fathers to Levi his son that he might preserve them and renew them for his children (i.e.
In the Pentateuch, Chronicles and Jubilees), was more suitable for popular exposition than for the academies.
These were of course created, but they were in their turn the agents of the phenomena of nature, " the angels of the spirit of fire and the angels of the spirit of the winds, and the angels of the spirits of the clouds and of darkness and of snow and of hail and of hoarfrost, and the angels of the voices and of the thunder and of the lightning, and the angels of the spirits of cold and of heat, and of winter and of spring and of autumn and of summer " (Jubilees, tr.
1-7, 19-22, and (b) the year of Jubilees, vv.
BOOK OF JUBILEES, an apocryphal work of the Old Testament.
The Book of Jubilees is the most advanced pre-Christian representative of the Midrashic tendency, which had already been at work in the Old Testament Chronicles.
For the other names by which it is referred to, such as The Apocalypse of Moses, The Testament of Moses, The Book of Adam's Daughters and the Life of Adam, the reader may consult Charles's The Book of Jubilees, pp. xvii.-xx.
(2) It was written before 96 B.C. or some years earlier in the reign of John Hyrcanus; for since our author is of the strictest sect a Pharisee and at the same time an upholder of the Maccabean pontificate, Jubilees cannot have been written after 96 when the Pharisees and Alexander Jannaeus came to open strife.
(1893-1895) from the text afterwards published in 1895, and finally in his commentary, The Book of Jubilees (1902).
Charles's commentary, The Book of Jubilees or the Little Genesis (1902), which deals exhaustively with all the questions treated in this article.
The date of this section can be partially established, for it was known to the author of Jubilees, and was therefore written before the last third of the 2nd century B.C.
Moreover, when the author of Jubilees is clearly drawing on the Book of Noah, his subject-matter (vii.
The Book of Jubilees (not earlier than the 2nd century B.C.) presents the history in another form.
Consequently investigation must start with the particular ' The Book of Jubilees also enables the student to test the arguments based upon any study restricted to Genesis alone.
Charles, Book of Jubilees (1902), pp. 33 seq.
3 In general, just as the Book of Jubilees, while presenting many elements of old tradition, betrays on decisive internal grounds an age later than Genesis itself, so, in turn, there is sufficient conclusive evidence that Genesis in its present form includes older features, but belongs to the age to which (on quite independent grounds) the rest of the Pentateuch must be ascribed.
The treatment of the covenant by the author of Jubilees (xxiv.
But it is noteworthy that Yahweh alone is now prominent; the tradition has been revised, apparently in writing, and, later, the author of Jubilees (xvi.) ignores the triad.
Although the priestly source shows how the lore could be reshaped, and Jubilees represents later efforts along similar lines, it is evident that for ordinary readers the patriarchal traditions could not be presented in an entirely new form, and that to achieve their aims the writers could not be at direct variance with current thought.
The latest source, it is true, is without their freshness and life, but it is a matter for thankfulness that the simple compilers were conservative, and have neither presented a work entirely on the lines of P, nor rewritten their material as was done by the author of Jubilees and by Josephus.
It is obvious that from Jubilees alone it would have been impossible to conceive the form which the traditions had taken a few centuries previously - viz.