We cannot be certain, indeed, how far the Frankish lords oppressed their Syrian tenants: the stories of such oppression have been discredited; while if we may trust the evidence of a Mahommedan traveller, Ibn Jubair, the lot of the Mahommedan who lived on Frankish manors was better than it had been under their native lords.'
Ibn Jubair, p. 237 sq., followed by Ibn Batuta, ii.
Not long before that event the wellknown Spanish traveller Ibn Jubair visited the empire of Saladin, and came to Bagdad in 580, where he saw the caliph himself.
Ibn Jubair (ed.
In the time of Ibn Jubair the gates still stood though the walls were ruined, but now the gates have only left their names to quarters of the town.
Little change, however, seems to have been made since the time of Ibn Jubair, who describes the floor and walls as overlaid with richly variegated marbles, and the upper half of the walls as plated with silver thickly gilt, while the roof was veiled with coloured silk.
Modern writers describe the place as windowless, but Ibn Jubair mentions five windows of rich stained glass from Irak.
Here, in the time of Ibn Jubair, the Maqam or standing stone of Abraham was usually placed for better security, but brought out on great occasions.2 The houses of ancient Mecca pressed close upon the Ka`ba, the noblest families, who traced their descent from Iosai, the reputed founder of the city, having their dwellings immediately round the sanctuary.
Omar, Othman and Ibn Jubair had all a share in this work, but the great founder of the mosque in its present form, with its spacious area and deep ' The old kiswa is removed on the 25th day of the month before the pilgrimage, and fragments of it are bought by the pilgrims as charms. Till the 10th day of the pilgrimage month the Ka`ba is bare.
Z Before Islam the Ka`ba was opened every Monday and Thursday; in the time of Ibn Jubair it was opened with considerable ceremony every Monday and Friday, and daily in the month Rajab.
Ibn Jubair mentions a curious superstition of the Meccans, who believed that the water rose in the shaft at the full moon of the month Shaban.
The whole legend of this stone, which is full of miraculous incidents, seems to have arisen from a misconception, the Maqam Ibrahim in the Koran meaning the sanctuary itself; but the stone, which is a block about 3 spans in height and 2 in breadth, and in shape "like a potter's furnace" (Ibn Jubair), is certainly very ancient.
In the middle ages it was sometimes shown, and Ibn Jubair describes the pious enthusiasm with which he drank Zamzam water poured on the footprints.
4 Ibn Jubair speaks of fourteen steps, Ali Bey of four, Burckhardt of three.
To the ordinary pilgrim the omra has become so much an episode of the hajj that it is described by some European pilgrims as a mere visit to the mosque of Ayesha; a better conception of its original significance is got from the Meccan feast of the seventh month (Rajab), graphically described by Ibn Jubair from his observations in A.D.
396), Arafa and Mozdalifa (Ibn Jubair, 179), and tawafs performed by the ignorant at holy spots at Arafa not recognized by law (SnouckHurgronje p. 149 sqq.).
4 On the similar pelting of the supposed graves of Abu Lahab and his wife (Ibn Jubair, p. I io) and of Abu Righal at Mughammas, see Noldeke's translation of Tabari, p. 208.
362 sqq.), but above all the admirable record of Ibn Jubair (A.D.