The Juarists were defeated outside the city of Mexico twice, in October 1858 and on the nth of April 1859, On the second occasion the whole body of officers, who had surrendered, were shot with Miramon's authority, if not by his express orders, together with several surgeons (including one Englishman, Dr Duval) (the fifty-three " martyrs of Tacubaya ").
This atrocity caused great indignation in Mexico and abroad: the reactionists were divided; their financial straits were extreme, as the Juarists held all the chief ports.
Oaxaca city, under Porfirio Diaz,' capitulated to Bazaine - who had superseded the too pro-clerical Forey in October 1864 - in February 1865, and by the autumn of that year the condition of the Juarists in the north seemed desperate.
Yet on the 3rd of October 1865, Maximilian, misled by a false report that Juarez had left the country, issued a decree declaring the Juarists guerillas, who, whenever captured, were to be tried by courtmartial and shot.
Here, with Miramon, he was besieged by the Juarists under Escobedo, and the garrison, when about to make a last attempt to break out, was betrayed 2 by Colonel Lopez to the besiegers (May 15, 1867).