There was no freedom of the press, however, until 1821, when the abolition of the censorship and the constitutional struggle in Portugal gave rise to a politicaldiscussion that marked the opening of a new era in the development of the nation, and aroused an intellectual activity that has been highly productive in journalistic and polemical writings.
Journalistic literature in the native language begins with the Magyar Hirmondo (Harbinger) started by Matthias Rath at Pozsony in 1780.
Japanese journalistic writing in these early years of Meiji was marred by extreme and pedantic classicism.
Its basic principle wa liberty of the individual, liberty of the family and liberty of th nation; it was always found on the side of broad-minded justice, an it derived its materials from economic, social and scientific sources Other newspapers of greatly improved character followed the Jij i Shim p0, especially notable among them being the Kokumin Shimbui In the meanwhile Osaka, always pioneer in matters of commercif i enterprise, had set the example of applying the force of capital t journalistic development.
It is most likely that Mist had found out that Defoe was a government agent and quite probable that he communicated his knowledge to other editors, for Defoe's journalistic employment almost ceased about this time, and he began to write anonymously, or as "Andrew Moreton."
He entered the legal profession, also doing journalistic work, and at the age of 25 was appointed provincial counsel for Brabant, becoming communal counsel in 1903.
When, after various journalistic indiscretions, James Franklin in 1722 was forbidden to publish the Courant, it appeared with Benjamin's name as that of the publisher and was received with much favour, chiefly because of the cleverness of his articles signed " Dr Janus," which, like those previously signed " Mistress Silence Dogood," gave promise of " Poor Richard."
While this habit was doubtless aggravated by the amount of his journalistic work, it seems originally to have sprung from what may be called a professorial spirit, which occasionally appears in the tone of his remarks.
Nevertheless, her cleverness, volubility, energy and will-power enabled her to maintain her ground, and when she died on the 8th of May 1891 (White Lotus Day), at the theosophical headquarters in the Avenue Road, London, she was the acknowledged head of a community numbering not far short of 100,000, with journalistic organs in London, Paris, New York and Madras.
Jaures, in addition to his daily journalistic activity, published Les preuves; affaire Dreyfus (1900); Action socialiste (1899); Etudes socialistes (1902), and, with other collaborators, Histoire socialiste (1901), &c.
His purely journalistic activity was from the first of a varied description, ranging from sparkling " leaders " for the Daily News to miscellaneous articles for the Morning Post, and for many years he was literary editor of Longman's Magazine; no critic was in more request, whether for occasional articles and introductions to new editions or as editor of dainty reprints.
He graduated at Union College in 1835, practised law in New York for several years after 1839; took up journalistic work; was joint owner (with William Cullen Bryant) and managing editor of the New York Evening Post (1849-1861); was United States consul at Paris in 1861-1864, and was minister to France in 1864-1867.
The respect for anything in books, the dogma of journalistic inerrancy which still numbers its devotees by millions, the common acceptance of even scientific conceptions upon the dicta of a small group of investigators, these are but a few of the signs of the persistence of what is surely not a medieval but a universal trait.
He began his journalistic career as dramatic critic of the Bonapartist paper, L'Ordre.
His literary and journalistic labours occupied much of his time, and were his chief means of subsistence.
One of the return embassies from Constantinople, that sent in 448, had the great advantage of being accompanied by a rhetorician named Priscus, whose minute journalistic account of the negotiations, including as it does a vivid picture of the great Hun in his banquet-hall, is by far the most valuable source of information as to the court and camp of Attila.
But the merit of both lies in their journalistic qualities of contemporary narrative.
His style is generally harsh, often pompous and extremely obscure, occasionally even journalistic in tone, but the author's foreign origin and his military life and training partially explain this.