In the exile, but probably after 50o B.C., an important section of the Hexateuch, usually called the Priest's Code (P), was drawn up. At various times in the same century are to be placed the book of Job, the post-exilic parts of Isaiah, the books of Joel, Jonah, Malachi and the Song of Songs.
The first is represented by the Deutero-Isaiah, who constitutes the climax and close of Hebrew prophetism, which is henceforth (with the possible exception of the Trito-Isaiah, Malachi and Jonah, who reproduce some features of the earlier prophecy) a virtually arrested development.
5 Special mention is made of Jonah, a prophet of Zebulun in (north) Israel (2 Kings xiv.
The relation between the present late prophecies of Jonah and the unknown prophet of the time of Jeroboam II.
Again, although some may have desired a self-contained community opposed to the heathen neighbours of Jerusalem, the story of Jonah implicitly contends against the attempt of Judaism to close its doors.
Besides the New Testament, the Pentateuch and Jonah, it is believed that he finished in prison the section of the Old Testament extending from Joshua to Chronicles.
(From Bosio.) The subjects, beginning at the top and going to the right, are-- (I) The paralytic carrying his (5) Jonah swallowed by the fish.
(6) Jonah vomited forth.
The most common are the history of Jonah as a type of the Resurrection, the Fall, Noah receiving the dove with the olive branch, Abraham's sacrifice of Isaac, Moses taking off his shoes, David with the sling, Daniel in the lions' den, and the Three Children in the fiery furnace.
RABBI JONAH (ABULWALID MERWAN IBN JANAII, also R.
But Rabbi Jonah saw the true vocation of his life in the scientific investigation of te Hebrew language and in a rational biblical exegesis based upon sound linguistic knowledge.
Jonah in the words: "He completed what `Hayyuj had begun."
Jonah is the Kitab al Tank (" Book of Exact Investigation"), which consists of two parts, regarded as two distinct books - the Kitab alLuma ("Book of Many-coloured Flower-beds") and the Kitab alusul ("Book of Roots").
1 The other writings of Rabbi Jonah, so far as extant, have appeared in an edition of the Arabic original accompanied by a French translation (Opuscules et traites d'Abou'l Walid, ed.
The grammatical work of Rabbi Jonah extended, moreover, to the domain of rhetoric and biblical hermeneutics, and his lexicon contains many exegetical excursuses.
Taking the narratives as we now have them, Balaam is a companion figure to Jonah, the prophet who wanted to go where he was not sent, over against the prophet who ran away from the mission to which he was called.
He has a good knowledge of Genesis and o Exodus, refers to the stories of Jonah, Daniel (vii.
Returning to Heidelberg he became Privatdozent in theology in 1829, and in 1831 published his Begriff der Kritik am Allen Testamente praktisch erartert, a study of Old Testament criticism in which he explained the critical principles of the grammatico-historical school, and his Des Propheten Jonas Orakel uber Moab, an exposition of the 1 5th and 16th chapters of the book of Isaiah attributed by him to the prophet Jonah mentioned in 2 Kings xiv.
Both are animated by an active local patriotism, and both honour the same patron saints, Jirjis (St George) and Jonah; the grave of the latter is pointed out on an artificial mound on the left bank of the Tigris.
There is no proper ground for regarding it, as some Biblical scholars of a former generation did, through a false interpretation of the book of Jonah, as a part or suburb of Nineveh.
(as in Haggai, promises and encouragements connected with the rebuilding of the Temple) 520 and 518; Malachi, c. 460-450; Joel, 5th century B.C.; Jonah, 4th century B.C. The latest prophecies in the book are, probably, those contained in Zech.
Historical or narrative Midrash is exemplified in the " canonical " books Daniel, Esther, Jonah and Ruth, and in the " apocryphal " stories of Daniel (viz.
The full development of this view seems to lie between the time of Elijah and that of Amos and Hosea - under the dynasty of Jehu, when prophecy, as represented by Elisha and Jonah, stood in the fullest harmony with the patriotic efforts of the age.
In 1531 the Book of Jonah appeared with an important and highly interesting prologue, the only copy known of which is in the British Museum.6 Meanwhile the demand for New Testaments, for reading or for the flames, steadily increased, and the printers found it to their advantage to issue the Worms edition of the New Testament in not less than three surreptitious reprints before 1534.
137, gives a good description of the ruins and the great shrine of Jonah as existing in the 12th century.
The mound of Nebi-Yunus is crowned by the " Tomb of Jonah," a sacred shrine to the modern inhabitants, and could not be explored; but by sinking a shaft within the walls of a private house, some sculptured slabs were recovered, and the Turkish government later opened out part of a palace of Esarhaddon.
Jonah (Abulwalid), which was cast in a similar bipartite form; and it was chiefly due to I imhi's grammar and lexicon that, while the contents of Abulwalid's works were common knowledge, they themselves remained in oblivion for centuries.
&c.) we learn that Genesis was read in Lent, Job and Jonah in Passion Week, the Acts of the Apostles in Eastertide, lessons on the Passion on Good Friday and on the Resurrection on Easter Day.
Here he left his servant (according to old Jewish tradition, the widow's son of Zarephath, afterwards the prophet Jonah), and proceeded a day's journey into the wilderness.
Hardy, Memoirs of Lord Charlemont (London, 1812); Warden Flood, Memoirs of Henry Flood (London, 1838); Francis Plowden, Historical Review of the State of Ireland (London, 1803); Alfred Webb, Compendium of Irish Biography (Dublin, 1878); Sir Jonah Barrington, Rise and Fall of the Irish Nation (London, 18 33); W.
When they asked for a sign from heaven, He would give them no more than the sign of Jonah, explaining that the repentant Ninevites should condemn the present generation: so, too, should the queen of Sheba; for that which they were now rejecting was more than Jonah and more than Solomon.
JONAH, in the Bible, a prophet born at Gath-hepher in Zebulun, perhaps under Jeroboam (2) (781-741 B.C.?), who foretold the deliverance of Israel from the Aramaeans (2 Kings xiv.
This prophet may also be the hero of the much later book of Jonah, but how different a man is he !
It is, however, the later Jonah who chiefly interests us.
The prophet Jonah is summoned to go to Nineveh, a great and wicked city (cf.
Jonah, however, is afraid (iv.
The lot falls on Jonah, who has been roughly awakened by the captain, and when questioned frankly owns that he is a Hebrew and a worshipper of the divine creator Yahweh, from whom he has sought to flee (as if He were only the god of Canaan).
Jonah advises the sailors to throw him into the sea.
Three days and three nights he is in the fish's belly, till, at a word from Yahweh, it vomits Jonah on to the dry ground.
Again Jonah receives the divine call.
Thereupon Jonah beseeches Yahweh to take away his worthless life.
Once more God "appoints" something; it is the east wind, which, together with the fierce heat, brings Jonah again to desperation.
Jonah has pitied the tree, and should not God have pity on so great a city ?
The narrator considered that Israel had to be a prophet to the "nations" at large, that Israel had, like Jonah, neglected its duty and for its punishment was "swallowed up" in foreign lands.
44, which, as the present writer long since pointed out, may supply the missing link between Jonah i.
Bib., " Jonah"; and his article "Jonah, a Study in Jewish Folklore and Religion," Theological Review (1817), pp. 211-219.
Bible, " Jonah," is full but not lucid; C. H.
The smaller, of the same date, is simpler, and has curious representations of Jonah and the whale.
But if the work had really been in existence at the time of the completion of the second part of the canon, the collectors of the prophetical writings, who in their care did not neglect even the parable of Jonah, would hardly have ignored the record of so great a prophet as Daniel is represented to have been.