Politically the Malay Peninsula is divided into four sections: the colony of the Straits Settlements and the Federated Malay States; the independent Malay State of Johor, which is within the British sphere of influence; the non-federated states under British protection; and the groups of states to the north of Perak and Pahang which are now recognized as lying within the sphere of influence of Siam.
Johor is the only Malay state in the southern portion of the peninsula, the whole of which is within the British sphere, which has been suffered to remain under native rule.
The population of the peninsula numbers about 2,000,000, of whom about 600,000 inhabit the colony of the Straits Settlements, about 900,000 the Federated Malay States, about 200,000 the Malay State of Johor, and about 250,000 to 300,000 the remainder of the peninsula.
150,000 in Johor, and the remainder in smaller communities or as isolated traders scattered throughout the villages and small towns of the peninsula.
Penang was purchased from Kedah in 1786, and Singapore from the then sultan of Johor in 1819.
The best silks are produced by the natives of Pahang, Kelantan and Johor in the Malay Peninsula.
In 1606 they concluded a treaty of alliance with the sultan of Johor, and in 1608 they forced the Portuguese to assent to an armistice for twelve years.
Broad, and is separated from the native state of Johor, situated on the mainland of the Malay Peninsula, by a strait which, at its narrowest point, is less than 1 m.
A line of railway connects the 2 Y town of Singapore with the spot on the strait opposite to the town of Johor Bharu.
It attained its climax of power in the time of Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607-1636), under whom the subject coast extended from Aru opposite Malacca round by the north to Benkulen on the west coast, a sea-board of not less than 110o miles; and besides this, the king's supremacy was owned by the large island of Nias, and by the continental Malay states of Johor, Pahang, Kedah and Perak.
It is said to have been attacked and devastated by the Javanese in 1252, and at the time when it passed by treaty to the East India Company in 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles persuading the sultan and tumenggong of Johor to cede it to him, it was wholly uninhabited save by a few fisherfolk living along its shores.