ALEXANDER JOHNSTON (1849-1889), American historian, was born in Brooklyn, New York, on the 29th of April 1849.
Johnston, The Napoleonic Empire in Southern Italy (2 vols., with full bibliography, London, i904); E.
John Johnston in his Coronis martyrum says he died in exile in 1556.
Johnston surrendered near Durham Station, in Durham county, on the 26th.
Johnston and W.
Johnston, might receive support from Virginia and the Carolinas.
At the moment of marching out to meet the enemy, Johnston was relieved of his command and was replaced by Gen.
The railway from Chattanooga to Atlanta, destroyed by Johnston as he fell back in May and June, was now repaired and working up to Thomas's camps.
Johnston, History of American Politics (New York, 4th ed., 1898); H.
Johnston, led to the battle of Shiloh, fought on April 6/7 about 20 m.
After the surrender of the armies of Lee and Johnston in April 1865, President Davis attempted to make his way, through Georgia, across the Mississippi, in the vain hope of continuing the war with the forces of Generals Smith and Magruder.
Johnston, established a line of defence west of the town.
Johnston, "A Journey through the Tunisian Sahara," Geog.
Johnston in the Geog.
Johnston, in the Geog.
Johnston, was published in the Geog.
JOSEPH EGGLESTON JOHNSTON (1807-1891), American Confederate general in the Civil War, was born near Farmville, Prince Edward county, Virginia, on the 3rd of February 1807.
His father, Peter Johnston (1763-1841), a Virginian of Scottish descent, served in the War of Independence, and afterwards became a distinguished jurist; his mother was a niece of Patrick Henry.
When McDowell advanced upon the Confederate forces under Beauregard at Manassas, Johnston moved from the Shenandoah Valley with great rapidity to Beauregard's assistance.
When Pemberton's army was besieged in Vicksburg by Grant, Johnston used every effort to relieve it, but his force was inadequate.
Later in 1863, when the battle of Chattanooga brought the Federals to the borders of Georgia, Johnston was assigned to command the Army of Tennessee at Dalton, and in the early days of May 1864 the combined armies of the North under Sherman advanced against his lines.
For the main outlines of the famous campaign between Sherman and Johnston see American Civil War (§ 29).
The great numerical superiority of the Federals enabled Sherman to press back the Confederates without a pitched battle, but the severity of the skirmishing may be judged from the casualties of the two armies (Sherman's about 26,000 men, Johnston's over io,000), and the obstinate steadiness of Johnston by the fact that his opponent hardly progressed more than one mile a day.
But a Fabian policy is never acceptable to an eager people, and when Johnston had been driven back to Atlanta he was superseded by Hood with orders to fight a battle.
But the Union troops steadily advanced, growing in strength as they went, and a few days after Lee's surrender at Appomattox Johnston advised President Davis that it was in his opinion wrong and useless to continue the conflict, and he was authorized to make terms with Sherman.
After the close of the war Johnston engaged in civil pursuits.
It was not the good fortune of Johnston to acquire the prestige which so much assisted Lee and Jackson, nor indeed did he possess the power of enforcing his will on others in the same degree, but his methods were exact, his strategy calm and balanced, and, if he showed himself less daring than his comrades, he was unsurpassed in steadiness.
The duel of Sherman and Johnston is almost as personal a contest between two great captains as were the campaigns of Turenne and Montecucculi.
To Montecucculi, indeed, both in his military character and in the incidents of his career, Joseph Johnston bears a striking resemblance.
See Hughes, General Johnston, in "Great Commanders S?ries" (1893).
Corps and the right of the investing line, and after the surrender he was sent to oppose General Johnston in the country about Jackson, Miss.
His able opponent Johnston had been removed from his command, and Hood, Johnston's successor, began early in October a vigorous movement designed to carry the war back into Tennessee.
General Johnston was recalled to active service, and showed his usual skill, but his forces were inadequate.
With 90,000 men Sherman drove Johnston before him, and when Lee surrendered to Grant Johnston also gave up the struggle.
Johnston and Beauregard.
Beauregard advised Johnston to give up the enterprise, but on account of the bad effect a retreat would have on his raw troops Johnston resolved to continue his advance.
But on the other side the disorder became greater and greater, many regiments were used up, and Johnston himself killed in vainly attacking on a point of Wallace's line called the Hornet's Nest.
On the 14th of May 1863 Johnston who then held the city, was attacked on both sides by Sherman and McPherson with two corps of Grant's army, which, after a sharp engagement, drove the Confederates from the town.
After the fall of Vicksburg Johnston concentrated his forces at Jackson, which had been evacuated by the Federal troops, and prepared to make a stand behind the intrenchments.
In the night of the 16th Johnston, taking advantage of a lull in the firing, withdrew suddenly from the city.
He had undertaken and nearly completed an elaborate life of Dr Pusey, for whom his admiration was unbounded; and this work was completed after his death by Messrs Johnston and Wilson.
Johnston (1904); G.
Johnston was despatched on a scientific mission to Kilimanjaro, and concluded treaties on which the British East Africa Company was subsequently based.
1 Toro, Ankole, Bukedi and the other countries now included in the protectorate were added by Sir Harry Johnston in 1899-1901.
In the autumn of 1899 Sir Harry Johnston was sent out as special commissioner to Uganda, being also given the rank of commander-in-chief.
Sadler succeeded Sir Harry Johnston in 1902 and was transferred to East Africa in 1905.
Stuhlmann, Mit Emin Pascha ins Herz von Afrika (1894); Sir Harry Johnston, The Uganda Protectorate (1902); and The Nile Quest (1903); A.
Johnston (Oxford, 1892); Liturgia, ed.
Johnston, The Napoleonic Empire in Southern Italy (2 vols., with an excellent bibliography, London, 1904); Correspondence of Napoleon with Joseph Bonaparte (2 vols., New York, 1856); Baron A.
Johnston and Beauregard at Winchester and at Manassas.
Much against his own judgment, Lieutenant-General Winfield Scott, the Federal general-in-chief, a veteran of the second war with England and of the war with Mexico, felt constrained to order an advance against Beauregard, while Patterson was to hold Johnston in check on the Shenandoah.
The arrival of Johnston on the previous evening and his lieutenant Kirby Smith at the crisis of the battle (for Patterson's part in the plan had completely failed), turned the scale, and the Federals, not yet disciplined to bear the strain of a great battle, broke and fled in wild rout.
Johnston meanwhile was similarly employed in fashioning the equally famous Army of northern Virginia, which for three years carried the Confederacy on its bayonets.
McClellan and the Army of the Potomac faced Johnston, who with the Army of northern Virginia lay at Manassas, exercising and training his men with no less care than his opponent.
C. Buell in Kentucky had likewise drilled his troops to a high state of efficiency and was preparing to move against the Confederate general Albert Sidney Johnston, whose reputation was that of being the foremost soldier on either side.
Here Fort Donelson on the Cumberland, Fort Henry on the Tennessee and Columbus on the Mississippi guarded the left of the Southern line, Sidney Johnston himself maintaining a precarious advanced position at Bowling Green, with his lieutenants, Zollicoffer and Crittenden, farther east at Mill Springs, and a small force under General Marshall in the mountains of eastern Kentucky.
Johnston and Beauregard completely surprised the camps of Grant's divisions.
The losses were enormous on both sides, Johnston himself being amongst the killed.
McClellan, deprived of McDowell's corps, felt himself reduced to impotence, and three Federal armies were vainly marching up and down the Valley when Johnston fell with all his forces upon the Army of the Potomac. The Federals lay on both sides of the Chickahominy river, and at this moment Johnston heard that McDowell's arrival need not be feared.
Johnston fell severely wounded, and in the end a properly connected and combined advance of the Army of the Potomac drove back his successor into the lines of Richmond (May 31 - June 1).
General Lee, who had succeeded Johnston in the command of the Army of northern Virginia, proposed to attack the Federals in their line of communication with White House, and passed most of his forces round to the aid of Jackson.