In the exile, but probably after 50o B.C., an important section of the Hexateuch, usually called the Priest's Code (P), was drawn up. At various times in the same century are to be placed the book of Job, the post-exilic parts of Isaiah, the books of Joel, Jonah, Malachi and the Song of Songs.
The offence of shedding innocent blood charged on them by Joel is natural after these events, but hardly so in connexion with the revolt against Joram.
Driver, Joel and Amos (1897).
William Duer (1747-1799) and others in 1787 and officially organized in 1789 as the Compagnie du Scioto in Paris by Joel Barlow, the agent of Duer and his associates abroad, William Playfair, an Englishman, and six Frenchmen.
Johnson, vice-president of the United States in 1837-1841, and the sculptor Joel T.
Juive et arabe; and Joel, Religionsphilosophie d.
In Capitol Square are also a marble statue of Henry Clay, by Joel T.
1863); and Joel Chandler Harris was long a member of the editorial staff.
25; Joel iv.
29) between some Sioux chiefs and Joel R.
The second book among the minor prophets in the Bible is entitled The word of Yahweh that came to Joel the son of Pethuel, or, as the Septuagint, Latin, Syriac and other versions read, Bethuel.
In the book of Joel there are only scanty allusions to Phoenicians, Philistines, Egypt and Edom, couched in terms applicable to very different ages, while the prophet's own people are exhorted to repentance without specific reference to any of those national sins of which other prophets speak.
P. 462 seq.), and reckon Joel among the post-exile prophets.
There are cogent reasons for placing Joel either earlier or later than the great series of prophets extending from the time when Amos first proclaimed the approach of the Assyrian down to the Babylonian exile.
In Joel the enemies of Israel are the nations collectively, and among those specified by name neither Assyria nor Chaldaea finds a place.
This circumstance might, if it stood alone, be explained by placing Joel with Zephaniah in the brief interval between the decline of the empire of Nineveh and the advance of the Babylonians.
But it is further obvious that Joel has no part in the internal struggle between spiritual Yahweh-worship and idolatry which occupied all the prophets from Amos to the captivity.
The considerations which have given currency to an early date for Joel are of various kinds.
2, Joel iii.
13, Joel iii.
14; Joel ii.
35; Joel iii.
They were hard masters but not invaders, and under them the enemies of the Jews were their neighbours, just as appears in Joel.'
As regards the Philistines, it is impossible to lay much weight on the statement of Chronicles, unsupported as it is by the older history, and in Joel the Philistines plainly stand in one category with the Phoenicians, as slave dealers, not as armed foes.
Joel complains that they were sold to the Grecians (Javan, Ionians).2 It is probable that some Hebrew and Syrian slaves were exported to the Mediterranean coasts from a very early date, and Isa.
In Joel it seems to stand as a general representative of the distant countries reached by the Mediterranean (in contrast with the southern Arabians, Sabaeans, ch.
2 The hypothesis of an Arabian Javan, applied to Joel iii.
I, 2, that Joel wrote after the exile.
To Joel Judah and the people of Yahweh are synonyms; northern Israel has disappeared.
It rests on the old theory of the antiquity of the Levitical legislation, so that in fact all who place that legislation later than Ezekiel are agreed that the book of Joel is also late.
S That Joel wrote not only after the exile but after the work of Ezra and Nehemiah may be viewed as confirmed by the allusions to the walls of Jerusalem in ch.
The style of Joel is clear (which hardly favours an early date), and his language presents peculiarities which are evidences of a late origin.
17, whose words Joel expressly quotes in ch.
8, and in Ezekiel's prophecy concerning Gog and Magog, where the wonders of fire and blood named in Joel ii.
It is characteristic of the prophetic eschatology that images suggested by one prophet are adopted by his successors, and gradually become part of the permanent scenery of the last times; and it is a proof of the late date of Joel that almost his whole picture is made up of such features.
In this respect there is a close parallelism, extending to minor details, between Joel and the last chapters of Zechariah.
See the separate commentaries on Joel by Credner (1831), Wiinsche (1872), Merx (1879).
On the language of Joel, see Holzinger, Z.
And the book of Joel; and also the last chapter (especially) of the book of Zechariah, may unhesitatingly be referred.
Apocalyptical elements disclose themselves in the prophetical books of Ezekiel, Joel, Zechariah, while in Isaiah xxiv.
But the Hebrew version of Rabbi Joel, made somewhat later, was translated in the 13th century into Latin by John of Capua, a converted Jew, in his Directorium vitae humanae (first published in 1480), and in that form became widely known.
With Tyre and Sidon they are condemned for plundering Judah, and for kidnapping its children to sell to the Greeks (Joel iii.
The "valley of Jehoshaphat" (Joel iii.
35, Joel ii.
Joel, Das Vencdltniss A.
The city was the literary centre of Federalist ideas in the latter part of the 18th century, being the home of Lemuel Hopkins, John Trumbull, Joel Barlow and David Humphreys, the leading members of a group of authors known as the " Hartford Wits "; and in 1814-1815 the city was the meeting-place of the famous Hartford Convention, an event of great importance in the history of the Federalist party.
(as in Haggai, promises and encouragements connected with the rebuilding of the Temple) 520 and 518; Malachi, c. 460-450; Joel, 5th century B.C.; Jonah, 4th century B.C. The latest prophecies in the book are, probably, those contained in Zech.
An old prophecy (Joel iii.
The Freemasons had been largely instrumental in overthrowing Iturbide; they now divided into the Escoceses (lodges of the Scottish ritual), who were Monarchist and Centralist, and the Yorkinos, who took their ritual from New York, and their cue, it was alleged, from the American minister, Joel Poinsett.
Merx, Die Prophetie des Joel and ihre Ausleger (1879, pp. 3 0 5-3 66); M.
So too there is no allusion to a human kingship in Joel or in Malachi; the old forms of the Hebrew state were broken, and religious hopes expressed themselves in other shapes.
The beginnings of this process can probably be traced within the canon itself, in the book of Joel and the last chapters of Zechariah; 3 and, if this be so, we see from Zech.
The lections for the day are the same as in the Roman Church (Joel ii.
In the early days of Washington it was a social centre of some importance, where many members of Congress as well as some cabinet officers and representatives of foreign countries lived and the President gave state dinners; and here were the studio, for two years, of Gilbert Stuart, and "Kalorama," the residence of Joel Barlow.
He and his brother Joel judged at Beersheba.
He was elected to the state House of Representatives, from which he immediately resigned to become a candidate for United States senator from Illinois, to succeed James Shields, a Democrat; but five opposition members, of Democratic antecedents, refused to vote for Lincoln (on the second ballot he received 47 votes-50 being necessary to elect) and he turned the votes which he controlled over to Lyman Trumbull, who was opposed to the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and thus secured the defeat of Joel Aldrich Matteson (1808-1883), who favoured this act and who on the eighth ballot had received 47 votes to 35 for Trumbull and 15 for Lincoln.
1846-18531 Joel A.