In the exile, but probably after 50o B.C., an important section of the Hexateuch, usually called the Priest's Code (P), was drawn up. At various times in the same century are to be placed the book of Job, the post-exilic parts of Isaiah, the books of Joel, Jonah, Malachi and the Song of Songs.
Johnson, vice-president of the United States in 1837-1841, and the sculptor Joel T.
Juive et arabe; and Joel, Religionsphilosophie d.
In Capitol Square are also a marble statue of Henry Clay, by Joel T.
1863); and Joel Chandler Harris was long a member of the editorial staff.
25; Joel iv.
29) between some Sioux chiefs and Joel R.
The second book among the minor prophets in the Bible is entitled The word of Yahweh that came to Joel the son of Pethuel, or, as the Septuagint, Latin, Syriac and other versions read, Bethuel.
In the book of Joel there are only scanty allusions to Phoenicians, Philistines, Egypt and Edom, couched in terms applicable to very different ages, while the prophet's own people are exhorted to repentance without specific reference to any of those national sins of which other prophets speak.
P. 462 seq.), and reckon Joel among the post-exile prophets.
There are cogent reasons for placing Joel either earlier or later than the great series of prophets extending from the time when Amos first proclaimed the approach of the Assyrian down to the Babylonian exile.
In Joel the enemies of Israel are the nations collectively, and among those specified by name neither Assyria nor Chaldaea finds a place.
This circumstance might, if it stood alone, be explained by placing Joel with Zephaniah in the brief interval between the decline of the empire of Nineveh and the advance of the Babylonians.
But it is further obvious that Joel has no part in the internal struggle between spiritual Yahweh-worship and idolatry which occupied all the prophets from Amos to the captivity.
The considerations which have given currency to an early date for Joel are of various kinds.
2, Joel iii.
13, Joel iii.
The last argument might be inverted with much greater probability, and numerous points of contact between Joel and other parts of the Old Testament (e.g.
14; Joel ii.
35; Joel iii.
They were hard masters but not invaders, and under them the enemies of the Jews were their neighbours, just as appears in Joel.'
The offence of shedding innocent blood charged on them by Joel is natural after these events, but hardly so in connexion with the revolt against Joram.
As regards the Philistines, it is impossible to lay much weight on the statement of Chronicles, unsupported as it is by the older history, and in Joel the Philistines plainly stand in one category with the Phoenicians, as slave dealers, not as armed foes.
Joel complains that they were sold to the Grecians (Javan, Ionians).2 It is probable that some Hebrew and Syrian slaves were exported to the Mediterranean coasts from a very early date, and Isa.
Thus the allusion to Javan in Joel better suits a later date, when Syrian slaves were in special request in Greece.'
In Joel it seems to stand as a general representative of the distant countries reached by the Mediterranean (in contrast with the southern Arabians, Sabaeans, ch.
Finally, the allusion to Egypt in Joel iii.
2 The hypothesis of an Arabian Javan, applied to Joel iii.
I, 2, that Joel wrote after the exile.
To Joel Judah and the people of Yahweh are synonyms; northern Israel has disappeared.
5 And the assumption that there was a period before the prophetic conflicts of the 8th century B.C. when spiritual prophecy had unchallenged sway, when there was no gross idolatry or superstition, when the priests of Jerusalem, acting in accord with prophets like Joel, held the same place as heads of a pure worship which they occupied after the exile (cf.
It rests on the old theory of the antiquity of the Levitical legislation, so that in fact all who place that legislation later than Ezekiel are agreed that the book of Joel is also late.
S That Joel wrote not only after the exile but after the work of Ezra and Nehemiah may be viewed as confirmed by the allusions to the walls of Jerusalem in ch.
The style of Joel is clear (which hardly favours an early date), and his language presents peculiarities which are evidences of a late origin.
17, whose words Joel expressly quotes in ch.
8, and in Ezekiel's prophecy concerning Gog and Magog, where the wonders of fire and blood named in Joel ii.
It is characteristic of the prophetic eschatology that images suggested by one prophet are adopted by his successors, and gradually become part of the permanent scenery of the last times; and it is a proof of the late date of Joel that almost his whole picture is made up of such features.
In this respect there is a close parallelism, extending to minor details, between Joel and the last chapters of Zechariah.
In view of the other points of 1 It has been suggested that Saphon, which is often rather troublesome if rendered "the north," may be a weakened form of .ib'on, a affinity between Joel and Ezekiel, this word inevitably suggests Gog and Magog, and it is difficult to see how a swarm of locusts could receive such a name, or if they came from the north could perish; as the verse puts it, in the desert between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
See the separate commentaries on Joel by Credner (1831), Wiinsche (1872), Merx (1879).
Driver, Joel and Amos (1897).
On the language of Joel, see Holzinger, Z.
And the book of Joel; and also the last chapter (especially) of the book of Zechariah, may unhesitatingly be referred.
Apocalyptical elements disclose themselves in the prophetical books of Ezekiel, Joel, Zechariah, while in Isaiah xxiv.
But the Hebrew version of Rabbi Joel, made somewhat later, was translated in the 13th century into Latin by John of Capua, a converted Jew, in his Directorium vitae humanae (first published in 1480), and in that form became widely known.
With Tyre and Sidon they are condemned for plundering Judah, and for kidnapping its children to sell to the Greeks (Joel iii.
The "valley of Jehoshaphat" (Joel iii.
William Duer (1747-1799) and others in 1787 and officially organized in 1789 as the Compagnie du Scioto in Paris by Joel Barlow, the agent of Duer and his associates abroad, William Playfair, an Englishman, and six Frenchmen.