2 Maudud (the brother of the sultan Mahommed) may be regarded as the first to begin the jihad, or counter-crusade, and his attack expedition of 1113, which carried him so far into the heart of Palestine, may be considered as the first act of the jihad (Stevenson, op. cit.
The Crusade was now at last answered by the counter-Crusade - the jihad; for though for many years past Saladin had, in his attempt to acquire all the inheritance of Nureddin, left Palestine unmenaced and intact, his ultimate aim was always the holy war and the recovery of Jerusalem.
In support of the policy, and to emphasize the religious character of Ottoman war aims, a Jihad or Holy War was proclaimed by the Sultan as Caliph of Islam.
After a siege of sixteen and a half months Damietta was taken by the Franks on Tuesday the 6th of November 1219; al-Kamil thereupon proclaimed the Jihad, and was joined at his fortified camp, afterwards the site of Man~ra, by troops from various parts of Egypt, Syria and Mesopotamia, including the forces of his brothers Isa and Miis.
JIHAD (also written Jehad, Jahad, Djehad), an Arabic word of which the literal meaning is an effort or a contest.
Mahommedans who do not acknowledge the spiritual authority of the Ottoman sultan, such as the Persians and Moors, look to their own rulers for the proclamation of a jihad; there has been in fact no universal warfare by Moslems on unbelievers since the early days of Mahommedanism.
Mahommed Ahmad (the Sudanese mandi) proclaimed a jihad in 1882.
In the belief of Moslems every one of their number slain in a jihad is taken straight to paradise.
An insurrection had occurred in Bitlis, the Hamawand were still virtually outlaws and the whole country refused to respond to the call to a jihad against the British.