Goldsmiths and jewellers work 35,000 55,000
The jewellers art received large encouragement in a country which had so many independent courts; but nowhere has it attained a fuller development than at Rome.
Purple corundum, or sapphire of amethystine tint, is called Oriental amethyst, but this expression is often applied by jewellers to fine examples of the ordinary amethystine quartz, even when not derived from Eastern sources.
It is one of the most magnificent specimens of goldsmiths' and jewellers' work in existence.
But side by side with this literary transmission Berthelot insists that there was another mode of transmission, by means of the knowledge of practical receipts and processes traditional among jewellers, painters, workers in glass and pottery, and other handicraftsmen.
The chemical knowledge of Egyptian metallurgists and jewellers, he holds, was early transmitted to the artisans of Rome, and was preserved throughout the dark ages in the workshops of Italy and France until about the 13th century, when it was mingled with the theories of the Greek alchemists which reached the West by way of the Arabs.
The Parisian jewellers Boehmer and Bassenge had spent some years collecting stones for a necklace which they hoped to sell to Madame Du Barry, the favourite of Louis XV., and after his death to Marie Antoinette.
After having vainly tried to place the necklace outside of France, the jewellers attempted again in 1781 to sell it to Marie Antoinette after the birth of the dauphin.
In any case the jewellers believed in the relations of the countess with the queen, and they resolved to use her to sell their necklace.
He said that he was authorized by the queen, and showed the jewellers the conditions of the bargain approved in the handwriting of Marie Antoinette.
But it is certain that the cardinal, convinced that he was acting for the queen, had engaged the jewellers to thank her; that Boehmer and Bassenge, before the sale, in order to be doubly sure, had sent word to the queen of the negotiations in her name; that Marie Antoinette had allowed the bargain to be concluded, and that after she had received a letter of thanks from Boehmer, she had burned it.
One and all skilful to a surpassing degree - weavers, embroiderers, potters, painters, engravers, carvers, sculptors and jewellers, - they were wearied by drudgery and overpowered by a never-absent, weird and grotesque theology.
In the Carib province there are no mural remains, but the pottery, with its excessive onlaying, recalls Mexico and the jewellers of Chiriqui.
Among many fine pieces of jewellers' work preserved in the ecclesiastical treasuries may be mentioned the silver statuette of San Biagio, and the reliquary which contains his skull - a 17th-century casket in filigree and enamels with Byzantine medallions of the 11th or 12th century.
Jewellers' or Armenian cement consists of isinglass with mastic and gum ammoniac dissolved in spirit.
The newer kinds of art metal-work have, until recently, reached the purchaser direct from the producer's workshop; but they may now also be seen in the shops of silversmiths, jewellers, and general dealers, who are thus helping to transfer production from large commercial manufactories to smaller ateliers under artistic control.
In silver-work the proportion of new art designs exhibited by dealers and others is still relatively small; but jewellers, except when setting pure brilliants and pearls, are becoming more inclined to make their jewels of finely modelled gold and enamel enriched with precious and semi-precious stones, than of gems merely held together by wholly subordinate settings.
The native jewellers make excellent ornaments in silver, coral and enamel.
BORAX (sodium pyroborate or sodium biborate), Na2B407, a substance which appears in commerce under two forms, namely "common" or prismatic borax, Na 2 B 4 O 7.10H 2 O, and "jewellers'" or octahedral borax, Na 2 B 4 O 7.5H 2 O.
Now it is the abode of the jewellers and ivory-workers of Delhi, but the jewels are seldom valuable and the carving has lost much of its old delicacy.