The kingdom reached its highest point of importance during the reign of Solomon, but, shortly after his death, it was broken up by the rebellion of Jeroboam, who founded the separate kingdom of Israel with its capital at Shechem.
Jeroboam, once one of Solomon's officers, became king over the north, and thus the history of the divided monarchy begins (about 930 B.C.) with the Israelite power on both sides of the Jordan and with Judah extending southwards from a point a few miles north of Jerusalem.
OLD] Of the 240 years from Jeroboam I., 80 elapse before the Syrian wars in Ahab's reign, these cover another 80; the famous king Jeroboam II.
Only the Temple records recall the spoliation of the sanctuary of Jerusalem, and traditions of Jeroboam I.
The decisive victories were gained by Jeroboam II.
- Under Jeroboam II.
5 The defeat of Ben-hadad by the king of 3 It is possible that Hadad-nirari's inscription refers to conditions in the latter part of his reign (812-783 B.C.), when Judah apparently was no longer independent and when Jeroboam II.
As the relations with Israel are not specified, the sequel to Amaziah's defeat is a matter for conjecture; although, when at the death of Jeroboam Israel hastened to its end amid anarchy and dissension, it is hardly likely that the southern kingdom was unmoved.
All that can be recognized from the biblical records, however, is the period of internal prosperity which Israel and Judah enjoyed under Jeroboam and Uzziah (qq.v.) respectively.
Opposition to social abuses and enmity towards religious innovations are regarded as the factors which led to the overthrow of Omri's dynasty by Jehu, and when Israel seemed to be at the height of its glory under Jeroboam II.
2 According to the historical traditions it is precisely in the age of Jeroboam II.
The relation between the present late prophecies of Jonah and the unknown prophet of the time of Jeroboam II.
The Judaean view pervades the present sources, and whilst its David and Solomon ruled over a united land, the separation under Jeroboam is viewed as one of calf-worshipping northern tribes from Jerusalem with its one central temple and the legitimate priesthood of the Zadokites.
21-24), or announced the divine selection of Jeroboam (ib.
Jeroboam), Midian (e.g.
At the secession of the northern kingdom under Jeroboam, Bethel became a royal residence and a national shrine (i Kings xii.
It was taken from Jeroboam by Abijah, king of Judah (2 Chr.
Jeroboam arranged for a similar feast in the northern kingdom on the 15th day of the eighth month, "like unto the feast in Judah" (ibid.
Perhaps, a man of Gad), and during the disturbances at the death of Jeroboam II.
The scene of his revolt was Tirzah, the old seat of the kings of Israel between Jeroboam I.
After which it was for a time the headquarters of Jeroboam (1 Kings xii.
The condemnation which later writers, particularly those imbued with the spirit of the Deuteronomic reformation, pass upon all image-worship, is in harmony with the judgment upon Jeroboam for his innovations at Bethel and Dan (1(1 Kings xii.
Amaziah summarizes it thus, "Jeroboam shall die by the sword, and Israel shall go away into captivity from his own land" (vii.
And it is perhaps not arbitrary to suppose that the splendour of the ritual in Amos's time implies a tremulous anxiety that Israel's seeming prosperity under Jeroboam II.
If these situations can with difficulty find a place in our picture of Solomon's might, it is clear that some of them form the natural introduction to the subsequent history, when his death brought internal discontent to a head, when the north under Jeroboam refused allegiance to the south, and when the divided monarchy enters upon its eventful career by the side of the independent states of Edom, Damascus and Phoenicia.
The following are examples of the standing formulae used by the compiler for the purpose :-" In the twentieth year of Jeroboam king of Israel began Asa to reign over Judah.
After the division of the kingdom the first year of Jeroboam in Israel coincides, of course, with the first year of Rehoboam in Judah; and after the death of Jehoram of Israel and Ahaziah of Judah in battle with Jehu (2 Kings ix.
If the regnal years of the kings of Israel from Jeroboam toJehoram be added together, they will be found to amount to 98, while if those of the kings of Judah for the same period (viz.
15) which are quoted for the lives of Solomon, Abijah and Jeroboam, are evidently quite distinct from the sources cited in the parallel portions of the earlier compilation, and the entire spirit of the narratives is different.
(3) A son of Jeroboam I., king of Israel; he died young (1 Kings xiv.
But under Jeroboam II.
19 that Abijah, son of Rehoboam, king of Judah, made a league with Tab-Rimmon of Damascus to assist him in his wars against Israel, and that afterwards TabRimmon's son Ben-Hadad came to terms with the second successor of Jeroboam, Baasha.
Deuteronomic) framework of Israelite history in Kings can be traced in Samuel, and it is a natural assumption that it should have gone back beyond the time of Jeroboam I.
Jeroboam became the recognized leader of the northern tribes.'
29-39), to announce symbolically the rending of the kingdom, replaces some account of a rebellion in which Jeroboam "lifted up his hand" (v.
24 (LXX.), in which there is no reference to a previous promise to Jeroboam through Ahijah, but the prophet is introduced as a new character.
Jeroboam, son of Joash (2) a contemporary of Azariah king of Judah.
Jeroboam was succeeded by his son Zechariah, who after six months was killed at Ibleam (so read in 2 Kings xv.
13-17 has led many critics to assign this poem to the time of the greatest warrior-king of Northern Israel, Jeroboam II.
Consequently it is uncertain whether Edom was the vassal of the next great Israelite king Jeroboam II., or whether the Assyrian evidence for its independent position belongs to this later time.
However, Uzziah, a contemporary of Jeroboam II., and one of the most successful of Judaean kings, overcame Edom and its natural allies (2 Chron.