From 1816 to 1819 Leo studied at the universities of Breslau, Jena and GÃ¶ttingen, devoting himself more especially to history, philology and theology.
Leaving the service after the war, he studied jurisprudence at Heidelberg, GÃ¶ttingen and Jena, and in 1819 went for a while to Geneva to complete his studies.
(Leipzig, 1884-1886), are on the whole unfavourable; Adolf Schmidt, Das Perikleische Zeitalter (Jena, 1877), V.
Von Hahn, Albanesische Studien (Jena, 1854), Reise durch die Gebiete des Drin and Vardar (Vienna, 1867); F.
Vogel, Peter Damiani (Jena, 1856); A.
See Statistik des Herzogtums Sachsen-Meiningen (Meiningen, 1892 fol.); Bruckner, Landeskunde des Herzogtums Sachsen-Meiningen (Meiningen, 1853); Goeckel, Das Staatsrecht des Herzogtums SachsenMeiningen (Jena, 1904); Anschutz, Industrie, Handel and Verkehr im Herzogtum Sachsen-Meiningen (Sonneberg, 1904); and the publications of the Verein fur sachsen-meiningische Geschichte and Landeskunde (Hildburghausen, 1888 fol.).
At Jena, where he lectured as a Privatdozent at the university, he contributed to the Athenaeum the aphorisms and essays in which the principles of the Romantic school are most definitely stated.
Von Heuglin, Reise nach Abessinien (Jena, 1868); G.
Kirche (Jena, 1869); Specht, Theodor v.
Fichte, was born at Jena on the 18th of July 1797.
(Jena, 1879-1881); 21.
Eine durch eine Art unvollstandiger Theilung entstehende Medusen-Kolonie," Jena Zeitschr.
Weismann, Die Entstehung der Sexualzellen bei den Hydromedusen (Jena, 1883); 59.
He was ably followed by Strasburger (Ueber den Bau und die Verrichtungen der Leitungsbahnen in den Pfianzen, Jena, 1891), Haberlandt and others.
Xxiv.; Fischer, Fixirung, Fdrbung and Bau des Protoplasmas (Jena, 1899); Flemming, Morphologic der Zelle, Ergebnisse der Anatomic und Entwickelungsgeschichte (i 896); Gardiner, The 1-listology of the Cell-Wall, with Special Reference to the iVlode of Connection of Cells, Proc. Roy.
I-Iertwig, Die Zelle und die Gewebe (Jena, 1893 and 1898; see Eng.
(Jena); Strasburger and others, Cytologische Studien aus dem Bonner botanischen Institut.
(1893 and 1894); Die Morphologic and Physiologic des pflanziichen Zelikernes (Jena, 1898).
Der Muskulatur des Beckens and der hinteren Gliedmasse der Ratiten, 4° (Jena, 1880); A.
See C. Gegenbaur, " Uber die Nasenmuscheln der Vogel," Jena Zeitschr.
Having studied at Marburg and Jena, he for some time lived at Leipzig as a private tutor; but in 1802 he was appointed professor at Marburg, and two years later professor of philology and ancient history at Heidelberg.
Of the numerous editions of the De Consolatione the best are those of Theodorus Obbarius (Jena, 1843) and R.
Miekley, De Boethii libri de musica priori fontibus (Jena, 1899).
Empfindungen (Jena, 1886), 5th ed., 1906, entitled Die Analyse d.
After studying medicine at Jena, he graduated doctor at Gottingen in 1775, and was appointed extraordinary professor of medicine in 1776 and ordinary professor in 1778.
C. Schlosser to give it up for history, and after continuing his historical work at Jena and teaching in the gymnasium at Wertheim he made his mark by his Die teutschen Geschichtsschreiber vom Anfang des Frankenreichs bis auf die Hohenstaufen (1839).
For Austria we may read Prussia; for Ulm, Jena-Auerstadt; for the occupation of Vienna, that of Berlin; for Austerlitz, Friedland, which again disposed of the belated succour given by Russia.
He is said to have remarked with an oath after Jena that he would make the Spanish Bourbons pay for their recent bellicose proclamation.
Heider, Die Embryonalentwicklung von Hydrophilus piceus (Jena, 1889); W.
Heymons, Die Embryonalentwicklung von Dermapteren and Orthopteren (Jena, 1895) (also Zeits.
5 vols., Jena, 1876-1881).
120-129 (a severe criticism of Bacon's logical doctrines); Held, Roger Bacon's praktische Philosophie (Jena, 1881); Karl Pohl, Das Verheiltniss d.
In 1899 the university of Jena gave him the honorary degree of Doctor of Philosophy for his work on Hegel.
Viii.; Adolf Schmidt, Pariser Zustc nde wahrend der Revolutionszeit von 1789-1800 (Jena, 1874).
Schultze, Die Katakomben von San Gennaro dei Poveri in Neapel (Jena, 1877).
At GÃ¶ttingen he remained, declining all further calls elsewhere, as to Erlangen, Kiel, Halle, Tubingen, Jena and Leipzig, until his death, which occurred on the 4th of February 1855.
Lassalles sozialiikonomische A nschauungen and praktische" Vorschlage (Jena, 1895); Seilliere, Etudes sur Ferdinand Lassalle (Paris, 1897); E.
Ii., 1903, Jena); also cf.
(b) The Conquest of Prussia and the Polish Campaign (Jena, Auerstadt, Eylau and Friedland).
An offensive move into Franconia was under discussion, and for this purpose the Prussian staff had commenced a lateral concentration about Weimar, Jena and Naumburg when the storm burst upon them.
In the meanwhile, however, the Saxons had been moving from Naumburg through Gera on' Jena, Hohenlohe was near Weimar, and all the other divisions of the army had closed in a march eastwards, the idea of an offensive to the southward which Napoleon had himself attributed to them having already disappeared.
Corps and a dragoon division) also to, Naumburg; Lannes to Jena, Augereau following;.
The main body were between Weimar and Apolda during the 12th, and the Saxons duly effected their junction with Hohenlohe in the vicinity of Vierzehnheiligen, whilst the latter had withdrawn his troops all but some outposts from Jena to the plateau about Capellendorf, some 4 m.
The defeats undergone by their outpost detachment had profoundly affected the nerves of the troops, and on the afternoon of the 11th, on the false alarm of a French approach, a panic broke out in the streets of Jena, and it took all the energy of Hohenlohe and his staff to restore order.
On the road from Gera to Jena Napoleon was met by intelligence from Lannes announcing his occupation of Jena and the discovery of Prussian troops to the northward.
The emperor rode forward rapidly, reached Jena about 3 P.M., and with Lannes proceeded to the Landgrafenberg to reconnoitre.
At this moment the Prussians were actually on parade and ready to move off to attack, but just then the " evil genius " of the Prussian army, von Massenbach, an officer of the Headquarter Staff, rode up and claiming to speak with the authority of the king and commander-in-chief, induced Hohenlohe to order his troops back to camp. Of all this Napoleon saw nothing, but from all reports he came to the conclusion that the whole Prussian army was actually in front of him, and at once issued orders for his whole army to concentrate towards Jena, marching all night if need be.
Meanwhile rumours from the battle-field at Jena, magnified as usual, began to reach the staff, and these may possibly have influenced Kalckreuth, for when appealed to to attack with his eighteen battalions and win the day, he declined to move without the direct order of the commander-in-chief to do so, alleging that it was the duty of a reserve to cover the retreat and he considered himself personally responsible to the king for the guards entrusted to his care.
But with the struggle raging before him he remained undecided, until at Jena the decision had clearly fallen, and then he crossed the river and arrived with fresh troops too late for their services to be required.
Goltz, Rossbach and Jena; the new edition of the same work, Von Rossbach.
Bis Jena and Auersteidt (Berlin.
1906) and Von Jena bis Preussisch-Eylau (Berlin, 1908); Studies in French Gen.
Maude, The Jena Campaign (London, 1909); F.
The wars which ensued, the closing of continental ports against English trade, the occupation of the city after the disastrous battle of Jena, and pestilence within its walls brought about a severe commercial crisis and caused a serious decline in its prosperity.
For the practical measurement of field intensity du Bois has used plates of the densest Jena flint glass.
Korschelt and Heider, Entwickelungsgeschichte (Jena, 1892), ibique citata; 17.
As a result of the Letters, Reinhold received a call to the university of Jena, where he taught from 1787 to 1 794.
Lombroso, Antropometria di 400 delinquenti (1872); Roberts, Manual of Anthropometry (1878); Ferri, Studi comparati di antropometria (2 vols., 1881-1882); Lombroso, Rughe anomale speciali ai criminali (1890); Bertillon, Instructions signaletiques pour l'identification anthropometrique (1893); Livi, Anthropometria (Milan, D900); Furst, Indextabellen zum anthropometrischen Gebrauch (Jena, 1902); Report of Home Office Committee on the Best Means of Identifying Habitual Criminals (1893-1894).
The victories of the French at Jena and Auerstadt destroy the independent existence of Prussia.