From 1816 to 1819 Leo studied at the universities of Breslau, Jena and GÃ¶ttingen, devoting himself more especially to history, philology and theology.
At this time the universities were still agitated by the Liberal and patriotic aspirations aroused by the War of Liberation; at Breslau Leo fell under the influence of Jahn, and joined the political gymnastic association (Turnverein); at Jena he attached himself to the radical wing of the German Burschenschaft, the so-called "Black Band," under the leadership of Karl Follen.
Intrigues, he removed to Jena, and thence, after the assassination of Kotzebue, fled to France.
Leaving the service after the war, he studied jurisprudence at Heidelberg, GÃ¶ttingen and Jena, and in 1819 went for a while to Geneva to complete his studies.
In 1870 he became chief pastor and superintendent at Jena and soon afterwards professor ordinarius of theology, but in 1875 he was called to the chair of systematic theology at Berlin, having made his name by a series of articles on New Testament criticism and Johannine, and Pauline theology, which appeared in Adolf Hilgenfeld's Zeitschrift fiir wissenschaftliche Theologie, and by his Der Paulinismus, published in 1873 (2nd ed., 1890; Eng.
(Leipzig, 1884-1886), are on the whole unfavourable; Adolf Schmidt, Das Perikleische Zeitalter (Jena, 1877), V.
Von Hahn, Albanesische Studien (Jena, 1854), Reise durch die Gebiete des Drin and Vardar (Vienna, 1867); F.
Vogel, Peter Damiani (Jena, 1856); A.
See Statistik des Herzogtums Sachsen-Meiningen (Meiningen, 1892 fol.); Bruckner, Landeskunde des Herzogtums Sachsen-Meiningen (Meiningen, 1853); Goeckel, Das Staatsrecht des Herzogtums SachsenMeiningen (Jena, 1904); Anschutz, Industrie, Handel and Verkehr im Herzogtum Sachsen-Meiningen (Sonneberg, 1904); and the publications of the Verein fur sachsen-meiningische Geschichte and Landeskunde (Hildburghausen, 1888 fol.).
At Jena, where he lectured as a Privatdozent at the university, he contributed to the Athenaeum the aphorisms and essays in which the principles of the Romantic school are most definitely stated.
Von Heuglin, Reise nach Abessinien (Jena, 1868); G.
Kirche (Jena, 1869); Specht, Theodor v.
Fichte, was born at Jena on the 18th of July 1797.
(Jena, 1879-1881); 21.
Hertwig, Der Organismus der Medusen (Jena, 1878), 70 pp., 3 pls.; 24.
Eine durch eine Art unvollstandiger Theilung entstehende Medusen-Kolonie," Jena Zeitschr.
Weismann, Die Entstehung der Sexualzellen bei den Hydromedusen (Jena, 1883); 59.
He was ably followed by Strasburger (Ueber den Bau und die Verrichtungen der Leitungsbahnen in den Pfianzen, Jena, 1891), Haberlandt and others.
Xxiv.; Fischer, Fixirung, Fdrbung and Bau des Protoplasmas (Jena, 1899); Flemming, Morphologic der Zelle, Ergebnisse der Anatomic und Entwickelungsgeschichte (i 896); Gardiner, The 1-listology of the Cell-Wall, with Special Reference to the iVlode of Connection of Cells, Proc. Roy.
I-Iertwig, Die Zelle und die Gewebe (Jena, 1893 and 1898; see Eng.
(Jena); Strasburger and others, Cytologische Studien aus dem Bonner botanischen Institut.
(1893 and 1894); Die Morphologic and Physiologic des pflanziichen Zelikernes (Jena, 1898).
Der Muskulatur des Beckens and der hinteren Gliedmasse der Ratiten, 4° (Jena, 1880); A.
See C. Gegenbaur, " Uber die Nasenmuscheln der Vogel," Jena Zeitschr.
Toward the end of 1806, when all the sad details of Napoleon's destruction of the Prussian army at Jena and Auerstadt and the surrender of most of the Prussian fortresses had been received, when our troops had already entered Prussia and our second war with Napoleon was beginning, Anna Pavlovna gave one of her soirees.
In 1806 Pfuel had been one of those responsible, for the plan of campaign that ended in Jena and Auerstadt, but he did not see the least proof of the fallibility of his theory in the disasters of that war.
So it had been at Lodi, Marengo, Arcola, Jena, Austerlitz, Wagram, and so on.
The victories of the French at Jena and Auerstadt destroy the independent existence of Prussia.