27 seq.).5 Some tradition of a widespread movement appears to be ascribed to the age of Jehu, whose accession, promoted by the prophet Elisha, marks the end of the conflict between Yahweh and Baal.
Tribute was received from Tyre and Sidon; and Jehu, who was now king of Israel, sent his gifts of gold, silver, &c., to the conqueror.
Hostility towards the dynasty culminated a few years later in a conspiracy which placed on the throne the general Jehu, the son of one Jehoshaphat (or, otherwise, of Nimshi).
The work which Elijah began was completed by Elisha, who supported Jehu and the new dynasty.
Jehu (q.v.) became king as the champion of the purer worship of Yahweh.
Hazael of Damascus, Jehu of Israel and Elisha the prophet are the three men of the new age linked together in the words of one writer as though commissioned for like ends (1 Kings xix.
Though Elisha sent to anoint Jehu as king, he was none the less on most intimate terms with Bar-hadad (Old.
It is a natural assumption that Damascus could still count upon Israel as an ally in 842; not until the withdrawal of Assyria and the accession of Jehu did the situation change.
It has been assumed that Israel had withdrawn from the great coalition, that Jehu sent tribute to Shalmaneser to obtain that monarch's recognition, and that Hazael consequently seized the first opportunity to retaliate.
Certain traditions, it is true, indicate that Israel had been at war with the Aramaeans from before 854 to 842, and that Hazael was attacking Gilead at the time when Jehu revolted; but in the midst of these are other traditions of the close and friendly relations between Israel and Damascus !
If Elijah is the prophet of the fall of Omri's dynasty, Elisha is no less the prophet of Jehu and his successors; and it is extremely probable that his lifework was confined to the dynasty which he inaugurated.'
In the present narratives, however, the stories in which he possesses influence with king and court are placed before the rise of Jehu, and some of them point to a state of hostility with Damascus before he foresees the atrocities which Hazael will perpetrate.
Moreover, the account of the joint undertaking by Judah (under Jehoshaphat) and Israel against Syria at Ramoth-Gilead at the time of Ahab's death, and again (under Ahaziah) when Jehoram was wounded, shortly before the accession of Jehu, are historical doublets, and they can hardly be harmonized either with the known events of 854 and 842 or with the course of the intervening years.
Moreover, of the various accounts of the massacre of the princes of Judah, the Judaean ascribes it not to Jehu and the reforming party (2 Kings x.
Opposition to social abuses and enmity towards religious innovations are regarded as the factors which led to the overthrow of Omri's dynasty by Jehu, and when Israel seemed to be at the height of its glory under Jeroboam II.
The change from the dynasty of Omri to that of Jehu has been treated by several hands, and the writers, in their recognition of the introduction of a new tendency, have obscured the fact that the cult of Yahweh had flourished even under such a king as Ahab.
The course of the dynasty of Jehu - the reforms, the disastrous Aramaean wars, and, at length, Yahweh's " arrow of victory " - constituted an epoch in the Israelite history, and it is regarded as such.3 The problem of the history of Yahwism depends essentially upon the view adopted as to the date and origin of the biblical details and their validity for the various historical and religious conditions they presuppose.
In the days of Jehu the country was taken from Israel by Hazael, king of Syria (2 Kings x.
6) or Jehu and the Rechabites (2 Kings x.
Jehu in 2 Kings ix.).
1), and it incorporated certain older prophetic writings - in particular, the debarim (" words" or "history") of Jehu the son.
It is therefore probable that in other cases than those of Isaiah and Jehu the writings of, or rather, about the prophets which are cited in Chronicles were known only as parts of the great "book of the Kings."
Here were found the famous black obelisk of Shalmaneser, now in the British Museum, in the inscription on which the tribute of Jehu, son of Omri, is mentioned, the great winged bulls, and also a fine series of slabs representing the battles and sieges of Tiglath-pileser; (c) the South-West palace, in the S.W.
The territory of Damascus was devastated, and Jehu of Samaria (whose ambassadors are represented on the Black Obelisk now in the British Museum) sent tribute along with the Phoenician cities.
The Assyrian inscriptions have furnished independent evidence of the relations of certain Hebrew kings (Ahab, Jehu, Ahaz) with the Assyrians, and thus supported more or less completely the evidence of the Old Testament on these points: they have also served to clear up in part the confused chronology of the Hebrews as given in the books of Kings.
After the division of the kingdom the first year of Jeroboam in Israel coincides, of course, with the first year of Rehoboam in Judah; and after the death of Jehoram of Israel and Ahaziah of Judah in battle with Jehu (2 Kings ix.
24, 27), the first year of Jehu in Israel coincides similarly with the first year of Athaliah in Judah: there are thus in the history of the two kingdoms two fixed and certain synchronisms. Now, 3 Namely, 40 years in the wilderness; Joshua and the elders (Judges ii.
It is in any case evident that the accession of Jehu and Athaliah must be brought down from 884 to 842 B.C.; and this will involve, naturally, a corresponding reduction of the dates of the previous kings of both kingdoms, and of course, at the same time, of those of Solomon, David and Saul.
The full development of this view seems to lie between the time of Elijah and that of Amos and Hosea - under the dynasty of Jehu, when prophecy, as represented by Elisha and Jonah, stood in the fullest harmony with the patriotic efforts of the age.
A threefold commission was laid upon him: he was to return to Damascus and anoint Hazael king of Syria; he was to anoint Jehu, the son of Nimshi, 5 The definition of time by the stated oblation (xviii.
See Skinner, Century Bible, " Kings," ad loc. 2 The geographical indications imply that in one account the journey to Damascus and the anointing of Hazael and Jehu must have intervened, and were omitted because another account ascribed these acts to Elisha (2 Kings viii.
In the latter we possess a more historical account of the anointing of Jehu, and Robertson Smith observes: "When the history in I Kings represents Elijah as personally commissioned to inaugurate [the revolution] by anointing Jehu and Hazael as well as Elisha, we see that the author's design is to gather up the whole contest between Yahweh and Baal in an ideal picture of Elijah and his work" (Ency.
Smith was thus enabled to make his first discovery (the date of the payment of the tribute by Jehu to Shalmanezer), and Sir Henry suggested to the trustees of the Museum that he should be associated with himself in the preparation of the third volume of Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western A sia.
The work of anointing Jehu to be king over Israel was performed by deputy (ix.
During the forty-five years which the chronological scheme allows for the reigns of Jehu and Jehoahaz the narratives contain no notice of Elisha, but from the circumstances of his death (xiii.
Here Elisha appears as the head of the prophetic gilds, having his fixed residence at Gilga1.4 Another circle, which presupposes the accession of the house of Jehu, places him at Dothan or Carmel, and represents him as a personage of almost superhuman dignity.
The anti-Assyrian alliance was, as often in west Asia, a temporary one, and the inveterate rivalries of the small states are illustrated, in a striking manner, in the downfall of Omri's dynasty and the rise of that of Jehu (842-c. 745); in the bitter onslaughts of Damascus upon Israel, leading nearly to its annihilation; in an unsuccessful attack upon the king of Hamath by Damascus, Cilicia and small states in north Syria; in an Israelite expedition against Judah and Jerusalem (2 Kings xiv.
Unfortunately, there is very little evidence in the biblical history for the subsequent career of Samaria, but it is clear that the old Israel of the dynasties of Omri and Jehu received crushing blows.
Revolt is also reflected shortly before the rise of the Jehu dynasty (JEws, § II).
It may perhaps be no mere chance that with the dynasties of Omri and Jehu the historical continuity is more firm, that older forms of prophetical narrative are preserved (the times from Ahab to Jehu), and that to the reign of the great Jeroboam (first half of the 8th century), the canonical writers have ascribed the earliest of the extant prophetical writings (Amos and Hosea).
(5) Son of Jehu, of the posterity of Judah (1 Chron.
JEHU, son of Jehoshaphat and grandson of Nimshi, in the Bible, a general of Ahab and Jehoram, and, later, king of Israel.
Jehu, meanwhile, remained at the seat of war, and the prophet Elisha sent a messenger to anoint him king.
In the tragedies of the period it seems clear that Elisha's interest in both Jehu and the Syrian Hazael (2 Kings viii.
Jehu is also the name of a prophet of the time of Baasha and Jehoshaphat (I Kings xvi.; 2 Chron.
He is described as a wicked and idolatrous king, and was slain by Jehu, son of Nimshi.
In the south, the companions of Jehu and of the Sun inaugurated a White Terror, which had not even the apparent excuse of the public safety or of exasperated patriotism.
(Ahab to Jehu) finds more developed parallels in the narratives of Saul and Samuel, the peculiar treatment of the lives of David and Solomon (Judaean kings over a united Israel) and of the division of the monarchy has complicated the present sources.
Jehu, king of Israel, paid tribute to Assyria, for which Hazael afterwards revenged himself, during the time when Shalmaneser was distracted by his Armenian wars, by attacking the borders of Israel (2 Kings x.