Nine miles from Tebessa are the extensive phosphate quarries of Jebel Dyr, where is also an interesting megalithic village.
Kassala was relieved on the 1st of April, and Stevani a few days later severely defeated the dervishes at Jebel Mokram and Tucruff.
Jebel Segadi is red granite of the finest quality.
Syrian orography, therefore, is simple, being composed of nothing but these two parallel systems. That on the west, which rises behind the Mediterranean littoral, springs from Taurus in the well-afforested Mt Ama nus (Giaour Dagh), and is continued by Jebel Bereket and J.
Jebel Hauran, east of the Jordan, is capped by a great sheet of basalt; and many other basalt flows are found, especially in the country north of Lebanon.
Hind the ridge of what is now known as Jebel Ajlun, probably not far from Mahneh (Mahanaim), near the head of the wadi Yabis.
Some investigators incline to Suf, or to the Jebel Kafkafa.
At present Gilead south of the Jabbok alone is known by the name of Jebel Jilad (Mount Gilead), the northern portion between the Jabbok and the Yarmuk being called Jebel Ajlun.
Jebel Jilad includes Jebel Osha, and has for its capital the town of Es-Salt.
Eastwards the mountain system, the Jebel Sangeli, maintains the same general character as far as Bandar Gori (Las Korai), where the precipitous northern cliffs approach within 200 or 300 yards of the gulf, their bare brown rocks and clays presenting the same uninviting appearance as the light brown hills skirting the Red Sea.
Immediately south of the Jebel Sangeli are the comparatively fertile Jidali and Gebi districts or river valleys - the Gebi flowing east in the direction of Ras Hafun, while the Jidali has a southerly course towards the Wadi Nogal.
From the table-land rise hills, such as Jebel Kurma, which have an altitude of 4000 ft.
The fourth province, Batanaea, which still is remembered in the name `Ard el-Bathaniyeh, lies east of the Leja and the Hauran plain, and includes the Jebel ed-Druz or Hauran mountain.
Volcanic in origin - the Jebel ed-Druz is a group of extinct volcanoes - the friable volcanic soil is extraordinarily fertile.
The Anti-Atlas or Jebel Saghru, also known as the Lesser Atlas, running parallel to and south of the central range, is one of the least elevated chains in the system, having a mean altitude of not more than 5000 ft., although some peaks and even passes exceed 6000 ft.
The two more or less parallel ranges which complete the western system are less important: - (4) the Jebel Bani, south of the Anti-Atlas, a low, narrow rocky ridge with a height of 3000 ft.
From Ceuta, above which towers Jebel Musa - about 2800 ft.
The Saharan Atlas is essentially one chain, though known under different names: Jebel K'sur and Jebel Amur on the west, and Jebel Aures in the east.
The central part, the Zab Mountains, is of lower elevation, the Saharan Atlas reaching its culminating point, Jebel Shellia (7611 ft.
The Jebel Amur was traversed by the column which seized El Aghuat in 1852, and from that time dates the survey of the mountains.
They ascended by the Ait Mizan valley to the Tagharat pass (11,484 ft.), and by the Amsmiz valley to the summit of Jebel Tezah (11,972 ft.).
In the Tagharat pass Mr Maw was the only one of the party who reached the watershed; but from Jebel Tezah a good view was obtained southward across the great valley of the Sias to the Anti-Atlas, which appeared to be from 9000 to io,000 ft.
Such were parts of the first and middle ranges, crossed once; three routes over the Great Atlas, which was, moreover, followed along both flanks for nearly its whole length; and six journeys across the Anti-Atlas, with a general survey of the foot of this range and several passages over the Jebel Bani.
North-north-west of the town; these are grouped round a powerful fort called Jebel Kebir, and have a command of 300 to Boo ft.
Above sea-level; (c) another group of batteries on the narrow ground between the sea and the lake to the east of the town; the highest of these is the Jebel Tuila battery 265 ft.
A narrow and shallow channel leads from the western side of the lake into another sheet of water, the Lake of Ishkul, so called from Jebel Ishkul, a hill on its southern bank 1740 ft.
From Testur on the Mejerda the fossa regia can be followed by these indications for several miles along the Jebel esh-Sheid.
The lake has become the Bahr-el-Jebel, or Mountain river, as this section of the Nile is called.
Long from west to east, and the Bahr-el-Jebel, after passing through its eastern corner, changes its name to Bahr-el-Abiad or White Nile.
Like the Bahr-el-Jebel the Bahr-el-Ghazal is liable to be choked by sudd.
Merawi) at the foot of Jebel Barkal, "the sacred mountain," which in time became formidable, and in the middle of the 8th century conquered Egypt; an Egyptian campaign is recorded in the famous stele of King Pankhi.
Besides a number whose names have been discovered in cartouches at Jebel Barkal, the following, of whom all but the third have left important steles, can be roughly dated: Tandamane, son of Tirhaka (667-650), Asperta (630-600), Pankharer (600-560), Harsiotf (560-525), Nastasen (525-500).
On the north-east and east the plateau shelves gradually to the Euphrates and the Persian Gulf; only in the extreme east is this general easterly slope arrested by the lofty range of Jebel Akhdar, which from Ras Musandan to Ras el Had borders the coast of Oman.
The route lay by Jibla, passing the foot of the lofty Jebel Sorak, where, in spite of illness, Forskal, the botanist of the party, was able to make a last excursion; a few days later he died at Yarim.
Sadlier's route had left Jebel Shammar to one side; his successor, G.
At Riad, Fesal, who had been in power since the Egyptian retirement, was still reigning; and the religious tyranny of Wahhabism prevailed, in marked contrast to the liberal regime of Talal in Jebel Shammar.
Other peaks cropping out of the Nafud are Jebel Tawil, near the wells of Shakik, and J.
The harra east of Khaibar is also of considerable extent, and the same formation is found all along the Hejaz border from Medina to the Jebel el Kura, east of Mecca.
In Jebel Shammar,.
Jebel Shammar, from which the northern district of Nejd takes its name, is a double range of mountains some 20 m.
East of Kasim the land rises gradually to the high plateau culminating in the ranges of Jebel Tuwek and J.
It is the most important crop. Jebel Haraz, of which Manakha, a small town of 3000 inhabitants is the chief place, is described by Glaser as one vast coffee garden.
Here the traveller ascending from the coast sees the first example of the jebel or highland towns, with their high three-storeyed houses, built of quarried stone, their narrow façades pierced with small windows with whitewashed borders and ornamented with varied arabesque patterns; each dar has the appearance of a small castle complete in itself, and the general effect is rather that of a cluster of separate forts than of a town occupied by a united community.
A rival state had, however, arisen, under Abdallah Ibn Rashid in Jebel Shammar.
As a reward for his services Abdallah was appointed governor of Jebel Shammar, and had already established himself in Hail when the Egyptian expedition of 1836 removed Fesal temporarily from Nejd.
During his twenty years' reign Jebel Shammar became a model state, where justice and security ruled in a manner before unheard of.
North-east of Zaghwan, and nearer Tunis, is the Jebel Resas, or Mountain of Lead, the height of which is just under 4000 ft.
Marble is found in the valley of the Majerda (at Shemtu), at Jebel Ust (about 35 m.
South of Tunis), and at Jebel Dissa, near Gabes.
In the marshy lake near Mater (north Tunisia), round the mountain island of Jebel Ashkel, is a herd of over 50 buffaloes; these are said to resemble the domestic (Indian) buffalo of the Levant and Italy, and to have their origin in a gift of domestic buffaloes from a former king of Naples to a bey or dey of Tunis.
That lying to the west is still called Jebel Libnan; the greater part of the eastern mass now bears the name of the Eastern Mountain (Jebel el-Sharki).
On the north, where the mountain bears the special name of Jebel Akkar, the main ridge of Lebanon rises gradually from the plain.
A number of valleys run to the north and north-east, among them that of the Nahr el-Kebir, the Eleutherus of the ancients, which rises in the Jebel el-Abiaei on the eastern slope of Lebanon, and afterwards, skirting the district, flows westward to the sea.
South of Jebel el-Abiac), beneath the main ridge, which as a rule falls away suddenly towards the east, occur several small elevated terraces having a southward slope; among these are the Wadi en-Nusur ("vale of eagles"), and the basin of the lake Yammuna, with its intermittent spring Neb`a el-Arba'in.
Of the streams which descend into the Buka'a, the Berdani rises in Jebel Sunnin, and enters the plain by a deep and picturesque mountain cleft at Zableh.
Between this group and the more southerly Jebel Keniseh (about 6700 ft.) lies the pass (4700 ft.) traversed by the French post road between Beirut and Damascus.
Among the bare summits still farther south are the long ridge of Jebel el-Baruk (about 7000 ft.), the Jebel Niha, with the Tau'amat Niha (about 6100 ft.), near which is a pass to Sidon, and the Jebel Rihan (about 5400 ft.).
The highest points of the range, reckoning from the north, are Halimat el-Kabu (8257 ft.), which has a splendid view; the Fatli block, including Tal'at Musa (8721 ft.) and the adjoining Jebel Nebi Baruh (79 00 ft.); and a third group near Bludan, in which the most prominent names are Shakif, Akhyar and Abu'l-Hin (8330 ft.).
In the north, beside `Ain Faluj, it is connected by a low watershed with the Buka'a; from the gorge of the Litany it is separated by the ridge of Jebel ed-Dahr.
Above the sea, at the northern foot of Jebel Kordofan, in 13° i 1' N.
The most striking coincidence is Jebel Usdum, by some equated with confidence to Sodom.
Near Jebel Kouif, on the frontier between Algeria and Tunis, there are phosphate workings, as also in Tunis, at Gafsa.
Perhaps the earliest known instance of his prominent appearance of large size in the sculptures of the temples is under Tahraka, at Jebel Barkal, Nubia, at the beginning of the 7th century B.C. As the protector of children and others he is the enemy of noxious beasts, such as lions, crocodiles, serpents and scorpions.