The natives of Bali, though of the same stock as the Javanese, and resembling them in general appearance, exceed them in stature and muscular power, as well as in activity and enterprise.
The Balinese language belongs to the same group of the Malayan class as the Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese, &c., but is as distinct from each of these as French is from Italian.
The literary language has embodied many of its ingredients from the Old Javanese, as spoken in Java at the time of the fall of Majapahit (15th century), while the vulgar dialect has kept free from such admixture.
Javanese influence is also traceable in the use of three varieties of speech, as in the Javanese language, according to the rank of the people addressed.
The alphabet is with some modifications the same as the Javanese, but more complicated.
The sacred literature of the Balinese is written in the ancient Javanese or Kawi language, which appears to be better understood here than it is in Java.
Where Javanese is the principal language, Malay is sometimes found written with Javanese characters; and in Palembang, in the Menangkabo country of Middle Sumatra, the Rechang or Renchong characters are in general use, so called from the sharp and pointed knife with which they are cut on the smooth side of bamboo staves.
Olibanum of Java), corrupted in the parlance of Europe into benjamin and benzoin; camphor, produced by Cinnamomum Camphora, the "camphor laurel" of China and Japan, and by Dryobalanops aromatica, a native of the Indian Archipelago, and widely used as incense throughout the East, particularly in China; elemi, the resin of an unknown tree of the Philippine Islands, the elemi of old writers being the resin of Boswellia Frereana; gumdragon or dragon's blood, obtained from Calamus Draco, one of the ratan palms of the Indian Archipelago, Dracaena Draco, a liliaceous plant of the Canary Island, and Pterocarpus Draco, a leguminous tree of the island of Socotra; rose-malloes, a corruption of the Javanese rasamala, or liquid storax, the resinous exudation of Liquidambar Altingia, a native of the Indian Archipelago (an American Liquidambar also produces a rose-malloes-like exudation); star anise, the starlike fruit of the Illicum anisatum of Yunan and south-western China, burnt as incense in the temples of Japan; sweet flag, the root of Acorus Calamus, the bath of the Hindus, much used for incense in India.
In September 1689 he reached Batavia; spent the following winter in studying Javanese natural history; and in May 1690 set out for Japan as physician to the embassy sent yearly to that country by the Dutch.
The most cultivated of the native tongues is the Javanese, and it is spoken by a greater number of people than any of the others.
Among the other languages which have been reduced to writing and grammatically analysed are the Balinese, closely connected with the Javanese, the Batta (with its dialect the Toba), the Dyak and the Macassarese.
The following table affords comparisons in the revenue and expenditure: - The monetary system is similar to that of Holland (the unit being the guilder), but there are also certain silver and copper coins of small value bearing Malay or Javanese inscriptions.
The officers were all Dutch till 1908, when a trial was made of native officers from noble Javanese families.
In 1851 the government founded a medical school for Javanese, and in 1860 the "Gymnasium William III."
Here are found members of the different Indian nations, originally slaves; Arabs, who are principally engaged in navigation, but also trade in gold and precious stones; Javanese, who are cultivators; and Malays, chiefly boatmen and sailors, and adherents of Mahommedanism.
Batavia owes its origin to the Dutch governor-general Pieter Both, who in 1610 established a factory at Jacatra (which had been built on the ruins of the old Javanese town of Sunda Calappa), and to his successor, Jan Pieters Coen, who in 1619 founded in its stead the present city, which soon acquired a flourishing trade and increased in importance.
With these three main races have crossed traders and colonists, Macassars, Buginese, Javanese and Europeans.
The Sumatran rhinoceros differs from the Javanese in having two horns, like the African variety.
The same character is employed by their immediate neighbours to the south, the Pasumas, who bear traces of Javanese influence.
In the extreme south are the Lampong people, who claim descent from the Menangkabos, but have also an admixture of Javanese blood.
In Menangkabo, for instance, the Arabic alphabet displaced the Kavi (ancient Javanese) character previously employed.
It is said to have been attacked and devastated by the Javanese in 1252, and at the time when it passed by treaty to the East India Company in 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles persuading the sultan and tumenggong of Johor to cede it to him, it was wholly uninhabited save by a few fisherfolk living along its shores.
The Macassar language, which belongs to the Malayo-Javanese group, is spoken in many parts of the southern peninsula; but it has a much smaller area than the Buginese, which is the language of Boni.
It has adopted a certain number of vocables from Sanskrit, Malay, Javanese and Portuguese, but on the whole is remarkably pure, and has undergone comparatively few recent changes.
The natives consist of Middle Javanese in the north and Sundanese in the south.