The same word 'Ic Fcev (Javan) appears in Hebrew literature of the 8th and 7th centuries, to denote one group of the " Japhetic " peoples of Asia Minor, Cyprus and perhaps Rhodes: " by these were the isles of the nations divided, in their lands, every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations," a comprehensive expression for the island-strewn regions farther west (Gen.
13, 19, Javan trades with Tyre in slaves, bronze-work, iron and drugs.
Later allusions show that on Semitic lips Javan meant western traders in general.
Unicornis, the Javan R.
Joel complains that they were sold to the Grecians (Javan, Ionians).2 It is probable that some Hebrew and Syrian slaves were exported to the Mediterranean coasts from a very early date, and Isa.
13 Javan exports slaves to Tyre, not conversely.
Thus the allusion to Javan in Joel better suits a later date, when Syrian slaves were in special request in Greece.'
And the name of Javan is not found in any part of the Old Testament certainly older than Ezekiel.
4, where (assuming that Elishah = Carthage and Tarshish = Tartessus) Javan includes Carthage and Tartessus.
2 The hypothesis of an Arabian Javan, applied to Joel iii.
6 by Credner, Hitzig, and others, may be viewed as exploded (see Stade, "DasVolk Javan," 1880, reprinted in his Akad.Reden u.Abhandlungen, 1899, pp. 123-142).
The might of the sons of Javan is broken in battle against this kingdom (ch.
13 the sons of Javan, i.e.
- Javan Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus).
The Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) is distinguished by its smaller size, and a different arrangement of the skin-folds (as may be seen by comparing figs.
It is the smallest of all the species, and its geographical range is nearly the same as that of the Javan species, though not extending into Java; it has been found in Assam, Chittagong, Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo.
This is corroborated by Javan records, which describe a" Cambodian "invasion about 1340; but Cambodia was itself invaded about this time by the Siamese, who took Angkor and held it for a time, carrying off 90,000 captives.
The Javan Pithechirus has the thumb opposable, while the Papuan Chiruromys has the tip of the tail naked above and prehensile.
Volcanic rocks are also present but they are not so extensively developed as in the islands of the Javan arc. The Permian beds consist chiefly of limestone and contain numerous fossils similar to those of the middle and upper divisions of the Productus limestone of northern India and the Artinsk stage of the Urals.
The Javan rhinoceros (R.
12), writing about this time, describes Kittim (a name derived from Citium, q.v.) as a port of call for merchantmen homeward bound for Tyre, and as a shelter for Tyrian refugees; but the Hebrew geographers of this and the next century classify Kittim, together with other coast-lands and islands, under the heading Javan, " Ionian " (q.v.), and consequently reckoned it as predominantly Greek.
The rusa, or Javan sambar, C. (R.) hippelaphus, is a lighter-coloured and smaller deer than the Indian sambar, with longer, slenderer and less rugged antlers.