During the same year in which De Torres sailed through the strait destined to make him famous, a little Dutch vessel called the " Duyfken," or " Dove," set sail from Bantam, in Java, on a voyage of discovery.
The two which drain the largest basin are the Chi Manuk and the Chi Tarum, both rising in the eastern end of the province and flowing northeast and north-west respectively to the Java Sea.
America), the four-day week of the Chibchas, the five-day week of Persia, Malaysia, Java, Celebes, New Guinea and Mexico; in ancient Scandinavia a five-day period was in use, but markets were probably unknown.
Perry commanded the "Java" in the Mediterranean expedition of 1815-1816, and he died at Port of Spain in Trinidad on the 23rd of August 1819, of yellow fever contracted on the coast of Brazil.
In 1595 the first Dutch expedition sailed from the Texel, but it took a more southerly course than its predecessors and confined its operations to Java and the neighbouring islands.
PREANGER, a residency of the island of Java, Dutch East Indies, bounded S.
The rivers of the province belong to the basins of the Indian Ocean and the Java Sea respectively, the water-parting being formed by the western and eastern ends respectively of the northern and southern lines of mountain peaks.
Among them was Nicolo Conti, who passed through Persia, sailed along the coast of Malabar, visited Sumatra, Java and the south of China, returned by the Red sea, and got home to Venice in 1444 after an absence of twenty-five years.
The ships touched at Achin in Sumatra and at Java, returning with full ladings of pepper in 1603.
He was in the Persian Gulf, India and Java, and resided for more than two years in Japan, of which he wrote a history.
Of Java, from which it is separated by Bali Strait, which is shallow, and scarcely over a mile in width at its narrowest point.
In 1882, for administrative purposes, Bali was separated from Java and combined with the island of Lombok to form the Dutch residency of Lombok and Bali.
Bali belongs physically to Java; the climate and soil are the same and it has mountains of proportionate height.
The geological formation includes (like that of Java) three regions - the central volcanic, the southern peninsula of Tertiary limestone, and alluvial plains between the older formations.
Hinduism, which was once the religion of Java, but has been extinct there for four centuries, is still in vogue in the islands of Bali and Lombok, where the cruel custom of widow-burning (suttee) is still practised, and the Hindu system of the four castes, with a fifth or Pariah caste (called Chandala), adhered to.
The literary language has embodied many of its ingredients from the Old Javanese, as spoken in Java at the time of the fall of Majapahit (15th century), while the vulgar dialect has kept free from such admixture.
The oldest tradition they possess refers to a time shortly after the overthrow of the Majapahit dynasty in Java, about the middle of the 15th century; but it has been supposed that there must have been Indian settlers here before the middle of the 1st century, by whom the present name, probably cognate with the Sanskrit balin, strong, was in all likelihood imposed.
It has a wide geographical distribution, being found in Europe (including England), Asia Minor, Burma, Straits Settlements, Java, China, Formosa, Egypt; west, south and Central Africa; Australia, South America, West Indies, United States and Canada, but is generally confined to local centres in those countries.
The southern group of the Malay Archipelago, from Sumatra to Java and Timor, extends in the arc of a circle between 95° and 127° E., and from 5° to 10° S.
Java is the most thickly peopled, best cultivated and most advanced island of the whole Eastern archipelago.
The highest land does not rise to a greater height than 10,250 ft.; the climate is well suited for agriculture, and the islands generally are fertile and fairly cultivated, though not coming up to the standard of Java either in wealth or population.
At Singapore the range is less than 5°; and at Batavia in Java, and Galle in Ceylon, it is about the same.
At Batavia in Java the fall is about 78 in.; at Singapore it is nearly 100 in.
The liquidambar and nutmeg may be noticed among the former; the first is one of the most conspicuous trees in Java, on the mountains of the eastern part of which the casuarina, one of the characteristic forms of Australia, is also abundant.
On the mountains of Java there appears to be no truly alpine flora; Saxifrage is not found.
The south-eastern portion of Asia, with the adjacent islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo and the Philippines, form his Indian region.
The occurrence of mammals of the Marsupial order in the Molucca Islands and Celebes, while none have been found in the adjacent islands of Java and Borneo, lying on the west of Wallace's line, or in the Indian region, shows that the margin of the Australian region has here been reached.
Indian alphabets have spread to Tibet, Cambodia, Java and Korea.
At present it occupies the extremity of the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines and other islands of the Malay Archipelago as well as Madagascar, while the inhabitants of most islands in the South Seas, including New Zealand and Hawaii, speak languages which if not Malay have at least undergone a strong Malay influence.
In the second, Hindu civilization reached the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra and other islands.
At the present time the Arabic alphabet is used on the mainland, but Indian alphabets in Java, Sumatra, &c.
The extensive Sanskrit literature, which has reached in translations China, Japan and Java, is chiefly theological and poetical, history being conspicuously absent.
At the end of the Napoleonic wars Portugal had Macao and Goa, Holland Java, Sumatra and other islands, France some odds and ends in India, while England emerged with Hong Kong, Singapore, Ceylon and a free hand in India.
The range of the genus extends from the southern bank of the Bramaputra in Assam to southern China, the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra and Borneo.
In Java and other Dutch possessions in the East cotton is cultivated.
France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Rumania, Turkey-in-Europe, Styria, Slavonia, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Lower Austria, Wurttemberg, Brandenberg, West Prussia, Crimea, Kuban, Terek, Kutais, Tiflis, Elizabetpol, Siberia, Transcaspia, Mesopotamia, Persia, Assam, Burma, Anam, Japan, Philippine Islands, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Algeria, Egypt, British Columbia, Alaska, Washington, California, Colorado, Texas, Louisiana, Barbados, Trinidad, Venezuela, Peru, South Australia, Victoria, New Zealand.
The former of Systems. is not only employed in the United States, but is in use in Upper Burma, Java, Rumania and elsewhere.
Broadly speaking, all the brown races which inhabit the portion of Asia south of Siam and Indo-China, and the islands from the Philippines to Java, and from Sumatra to Timor, may be described as belonging to the Malayan family, if the aboriginal tribes, such as the Sakai and Semang in the Malay Peninsula, the Bataks in Sumatra, and the Muruts in Borneo, be excepted.
These people inhabit the whole of the Malayan Peninsula to the borders of lower Siam, the islands in the vicinity of the mainland, the shores of Sumatra and some portions of the interior of that island, Sarawak and Brunei in Borneo, and some parts of Dutch Borneo, Batavia and certain districts in Java, and some of the smaller islands of the archipelago.
The best cotton cloths are those manufactured by the Bugis people in Celebes, and the batek cloths which come from Java and are stamped with patterns.
The area over which it is spoken comprises the peninsula of Malacca with the adjacent islands (the Rhio-Lingga Archipelago), the greater part of the coast districts of Sumatra and Borneo, the seaports of Java, the Sunda and Banda Islands.
Hindus appear to have settled in Sumatra and Java as early as the 4th century of our era, and to have continued to exercise sway over the native populations for many centuries.
This has its origin in the names Great Java and Lesser Java, by which the medieval Java and Sumatra were called, and it accordingly means the language spoken along the coasts of the two great islands.
Java coffee has been grown with success in Porto Rico.
Of Java we possess an excellent topographical map based upon surveys made1850-1887(I:100,000).
Between these two chains are round hills consisting of lavas or sometimes of volcanic tuffs, covered with the long silvery grass which also clothes vast prairies in Java and Sumatra.
There are no navigable streams. The climate and productions are not unlike those of Java, though the rains are heavier, the drought more severe, and the fertility less.
Successful plantations of Hevea have also been established in Java, Sumatra and Borneo.
BANTIN, or BANTING, the native name of the wild ox of Java, known to the Malays as sapi-utan, and in zoology as Bos (Bibos) sondaicus.
Bulls of the typical bantin of Java and Borneo are, when fully adult, completely black except for the white rump and legs, but the cows and young are rufous.
Tame bantin are bred in Bali, near Java, and exported to Singapore.
Thus although the rocks of the southern coast of Java in their general character and succession resemble those of Christmas Island, there lies between them an abysmal trough 18,000 ft.
Leyds, a Hollander born in Java in 1859, went out to the Transvaal in 1884 as attorney-general and was, in 1887, made government commissioner for the Netherlands (S.
Kinnamon), the Cinnamomum zeylanicum of the Somali country, but cultivated largely in Ceylon, where also it runs wild, and in Java; costus (Heb.
Olibanum of Java), corrupted in the parlance of Europe into benjamin and benzoin; camphor, produced by Cinnamomum Camphora, the "camphor laurel" of China and Japan, and by Dryobalanops aromatica, a native of the Indian Archipelago, and widely used as incense throughout the East, particularly in China; elemi, the resin of an unknown tree of the Philippine Islands, the elemi of old writers being the resin of Boswellia Frereana; gumdragon or dragon's blood, obtained from Calamus Draco, one of the ratan palms of the Indian Archipelago, Dracaena Draco, a liliaceous plant of the Canary Island, and Pterocarpus Draco, a leguminous tree of the island of Socotra; rose-malloes, a corruption of the Javanese rasamala, or liquid storax, the resinous exudation of Liquidambar Altingia, a native of the Indian Archipelago (an American Liquidambar also produces a rose-malloes-like exudation); star anise, the starlike fruit of the Illicum anisatum of Yunan and south-western China, burnt as incense in the temples of Japan; sweet flag, the root of Acorus Calamus, the bath of the Hindus, much used for incense in India.
From India he sailed in a junk to Sumatra, visiting various ports on the northern coast of that island, and thence to Java, to the coast (it would seem) of Borneo, to Champa (South Cochin-China), and to Canton, at that time known to western Asiatics as Chin-Kalan or Great China (Mahachin).
Though cultivated in sub-tropical countries such as Natal and the Southern states of the Union, it is essentially tropical in its requirements and succeeds best in warm damp climates such as Cuba, British Guiana and Hawaii, and in India and Java in the Old World.
In Australia, Demerara, Cuba, Java and Peru double crushing and maceration (first used on a commercial scale in Demerara by the late Hon.
Extraction of cane juice by diffusion (a process more fully described under the head of beetroot sugar manufacture) is adopted in a few plantations in Java and Cuba, in Louisiana Etr cti o n and the Hawaiian Islands, and in one or two factories y f i in Egypt; b u t hitherto, except under exceptional conditions (as at Aska, in the Madras Presidency, where the local price for sugar is three or four times the London price), it would not seem to offer any substantial advantage over double or triple crushing.
The best results from extraction by diffusion have been obtained in Java, where there is an abundance of clear, good water; but in the Hawaiian Islands, and in Cuba and Demerara, diffusion has been abandoned on several well mounted estates and replaced by double and triple crushing; and it is not likely to be resorted to again, as the extra cost of working is not compensated by the slight increase of sugar produced.
In Java and Mauritius, where very clean canes are grown, double-bottomed defecators are generally used, and to them, perhaps as much as to the quality of the canes, may be attributed the very strong, fine sugars made in those islands.
Of the 178 factories at work in Java in 1908-1909, nearly all had most efficient plant for treating the excellent canes grown in that favoured island.
The southerly summer winds of the Asiatic seas between the equator and the tropic do not extend to the coasts of Java, and the southeasterly trade winds are there developed in the usual manner.
Celebes, Papua, and the other islands east of Java beyond Wallace's line, fall within the Australian region.
Sumatra, Java and Borneo, where active development began in 1883, 1886 and 1896, bid fair to rank before long among the chief sources of the oil supplies of the world.