Arnaud, formerly in the Egyptian service, was the first to visit the southern Jauf and to report on the rock-cut inscriptions and ruins of Marib, though it was not till 1869 that a competent archaeologist, J.
Halevy, was able to carry out any Jauf and complete exploration there.
Yam, on the borders of Jauf, a vast sandy plain, extending eastwards to El Jail and El Hazm, where Halevy made his most important discoveries of Sabaean inscriptions: here he explored Main, the ancient capital of the Minaeans, Kamna on the banks of the W.
He was unable, however, to proceed farther east than his predecessors, and the problem of the Jauf drainage and its possible connexion with the upper part of the Hadramut valley still remains unsolved.
Commissioned by Mehemet Ali to inform him about the situation in Nejd brought about by the rising power of Abdallah Ibn Rashid, Wallin left Cairo in April 1845, and crossing the pilgrim road at Ma`an, pushed on across the Syrian desert to the Wadi Sirhan and the Jauf oasis, where he halted during the hot summer months.
Following Wallin's route across the desert by Mean and Jauf, Palgrave and his companion, a Syrian Christian, reached Hail in July 1862; here they were hospitably entertained by the amir Talal, nephew of the founder of the Ibn Rashid dynasty, and after some stay passed on with his countenance through Kasim to southern Nejd.
The long stretch of waterless desert between Jauf and J.
In the southern half, on the other hand, except in Nejran and Jauf, no European traveller has penetrated 100 m.
M., accounts for about a third of this area, but some of the most favoured districts in Arabia - Asir and northern Yemen - remain unexplored, and the hydrography of the Dawasir basin offers some interesting problems, while a great field remains for the archaeologist in the seat of the old Sabaean kingdom from Jauf to the Hadramut valley.
Below the average level of the Hamad, crosses it from north-east to south-west between Hauran and Jauf; it has a nearly uniform height above sea-level of 1850 ft., and appears to be the bed of an inland sea rather than a true watercourse.
Sirhan is continuous with the depression known as the Jauf, situated on the northern edge of the Nefud or Nafud, and the halfway station between Damascus and Hail; and it is possible that this depression continues eastward towards the Euphrates along a line a little north of the thirtieth parallel, where wells and pasturages are known to exist.
Jauf is a small town consisting, at the time of the Blunts' visit in 1879, of not more than 500 houses.
To the east; the former a town of 10,000 inhabitants and somewhat larger than Jauf according to Huber.
A short distance south of Jauf the character of the desert changes abruptly from a level black expanse of gravel to the red sands of the The Nafud.
Above sea-level; the highest point on the Jauf-Hail route is at Falk Alam, the rocky peaks of which rise 200 or 300 ft.
Hadur, run north-eastward to the Jauf depression.
Eastward the plateau becomes still more sterile, and its elevation probably falls more rapidly till it reaches the level of the Jauf and Nejran valleys on the borders of the desert.
Dawasir, while the Jauf is either an isolated depression, or perhaps forms part of the Hadramut basin.
Upon the sandstone rest a few scattered outliers of limestone, probably of Cretaceous age, the largest of which occur near Jauf and east of Bureda.
The autumn rains fell that year abundantly in the Nafud towards Jauf, but very little in the basin of the W.
The principal trade routes are those leading from Damascus to Jauf and across the Nafud to Hail.
The Minaean kingdom extended over the south Arabian Jauf, its chief cities being Karnau, Ma`in and Yathil.
Khaibar, Tema and Jauf became tributary to Hail.
Then Joseph Halevy made his remarkable journey through the Jauf, visiting districts and ruins which no European foot had trod since the expedition of Gallus, and returned with almost Boo inscriptions.
Of the two dialects commonly called Sabaean and Minaean the latter might be better called Hadramitic, inasmuch as it is the dialect of the inscriptions found in Hadramut, and the Minaeans seem undoubtedly to have entered the Jauf from Ijadramut.
The third Minaean fortress, probably identical with the Kapva of the Greeks, lies in the middle of the northern Jauf, and north of the other two.
Thus we are led to conclude that the Minaeans were a Hadramite settlement in the Jauf, whose object was to secure the northern trade road for their products.
Historians generally put Dumat-al-Jandal, the biblical Duma, now called Jauf, but this rests on feeble authority.